6
votes
2answers
311 views

To what extent was China unified?

Earlier this week, I asked the question, why was China able to unify and not Europe? I was given some very good responses that made me wonder, how unified was the government China. After all, it was ...
4
votes
1answer
877 views

What is the purpose of the bridge to the Russkiy island? [closed]

Russky bridge is a bridge to a sparsely populated Russky island in the Far East whose construction started in 2008 and completed in 2012. It is the world's largest cable-stayed bridge, the 1104 m long ...
11
votes
3answers
288 views

Any precedents of U.S. presidents having served in other government roles after the ends of their terms?

Are there any precedents for U.S. presidents having served in other official government roles after the ends of their terms. Conceivably they could become ambassadors or Supreme Court judges, for ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

How did Columbus calculate the size of the Earth?

Eratosthenes' calculations of the size of the Earth were very precise and very accepted during Columbus' time. Still, Columbus was convinced that the world was significatively smaller and that getting ...
57
votes
13answers
6k views

Why China was able to unify and not Europe

If you look at a map of China through the ages, you will usually find (from about the Han up) a huge mass representing China. On the other hand, you look at a map of Europe, and you'll usually see a ...
10
votes
5answers
876 views

Were the (early 17th C) arrivers/colonists to North America (USA) outcasts from European societies?

I have heard that early pilgrims for 'the new world' (North America / USA) left because they were indigent and had no support in their homelands. I have also heard that some were criminals or ...
5
votes
3answers
215 views

What language was the Charter of Liberties written in?

While researching my answer for the What was the official language used across European monarchies in the XII century? question I came upon the Charter of Liberties, or Coronation Charter, issued by ...
6
votes
2answers
383 views

What was the official language used across European monarchies in the XII century?

I have been reading about European history in the XII century and I am finding out that several of the modern day languages hadn't yet evolved to what they are now: Langue d'oïl was still being used ...
4
votes
1answer
125 views

Has the resignation of a political leader in a Westminster style parliament ever forced an election call?

So reading about the premier of Ontario Dalton McGuinty abruptly quitting his post, and there's many people wondering if there will have to be an election to replace him. While there is some precedent ...
6
votes
2answers
334 views

What laws of war existed before the modern international treaties and conventions?

Were there laws governing the rules of conducting war before modern (20th century) international treaties and conventions such as the Geneva conventions? For example, were there rules regarding the ...
4
votes
1answer
273 views

Did liberalism in the USA degenerate into something more totalitarian than liberal? [closed]

I'm not US resident, so that's a real question rather than pre-election discussion. Where I live liberalism never seriously changed meaning in public debate (yet) - it is still more or less faithul ...
4
votes
1answer
327 views

Have atheists ever been persecuted in India?

Have atheists ever been persecuted in India? Wikipedia article on persecution of atheist has nothing about India, and google did not throw up anything useful.
7
votes
1answer
286 views

Evolution of the names of slaves

I'm curious to know how the names of African slaves in the US changed from that of traditional names used by their tribes eventually to their modern, (mostly Christian) names. In other words, how did ...
3
votes
1answer
207 views

In medieval India, was there a distinction between the army and the police?

In medieval India, who was responsible for maintaining law and order? Was it the army or was there a separate arm of the state that was responsible for law and order, something akin to a modern police ...
3
votes
4answers
179 views

Relatively modern phantom islands or similar entities

(Not sure whether to ask it here or at Travel.SE; feel free to migrate my question if others think differently) I recently came across the concept of Phantom island. I guess there aren't any phantom ...
19
votes
2answers
659 views

What was the structure of religious beliefs among the Arabic peoples before conversion to Islam?

Other questions on this topic has addressed the pre-Islamic religious beliefs in broad detail, including the conversion of near-Arab cultures. What was the specific nature of the pre-Islamic ...
10
votes
2answers
180 views

When was grass seed first imported specifically for aesthetic reasons?

Wikipedia states that the term lawn dates to no earlier than the 16th century, and that in early 17th century Europe the concept of a closely cut lawn was born. I understand that certain luxuries were ...
5
votes
1answer
150 views

What was the main food source in old California?

What was the main food source in California during the Spanish and Mexican periods? I'm expecting it was either corn or wheat, but I don't know which.
10
votes
2answers
817 views

How did diplomats of the Axis powers travel and communicate among themselves in World War II

In World War II, Japan and the European Axis powers had to communicate over strategy and other things. Also, their diplomats must have had to go to their own countries sometimes. After the USSR ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

How did ethnic Turkish people embrace Islam?

How was Islam spread among Turkish population or in historical Turkey? How did ethnic Turkish people embrace Islam?
12
votes
2answers
583 views

What decides who goes in the front rank in a line infantry formation?

In an infantry formation, the front ranks seems to have much higher chance of being killed because they are exposed to the enemy front. This thread explains how soldiers are arranged in Roman ...
4
votes
2answers
187 views

How significant was the US military role during the NATO campaign in Libya?

The NATO campaign in Libya was started by the UK and France, and the US was later also involved. How significant and vital was the US assistance in this campaign? Edit: I am primarily interested in ...
1
vote
3answers
565 views

What is the single longest Presidential Campaign run in the United States?

Looking back to 2008 it looks like Mitt Romney has been running for President ever since he was in the 2008 Republican primaries where he lost to John McCain. Considering a short stoppage while ...
1
vote
1answer
129 views

Is the killing between communists and Muslims in Indonesia during 1965 mutual?

During 1965, there was an anti-communist purge in Indonesia following the 30 September failed coup. There are claims that the killing is mutual. There are claims that it's one sided. Which one is ...
4
votes
1answer
324 views

The Great Compromise, is there analysis on the outcome?

I'm doing a research about the Great Compromise and how it originated from the Virginia and the New Jersey Plan. Has there been any analysis on which side got the better part of the compromise. (The ...
6
votes
1answer
794 views

What's the origin of valet parking?

Seems that every single place I go nowadays, they have valet parking: restaurants, bars, airports, etc. The other day I got to think about this dreadful service (I have enough skills to park my own ...
4
votes
1answer
164 views

How easy one could start an artel in USSR after WW2 1945-1956?

During 1956-1960 all artels (cooperative enterprises) were nationalized in USSR. It was a large amount of artels. How easy was it to organize an artel before that, in the post-war period of ...
2
votes
2answers
438 views

Great Britain's role in Islamic Iran

Before the World War Iran was a colony of Great Britain. I am sure that the Islamization of today's Iran is the result of Great Britain's policy on Iran before the World War. However, no data has been ...
7
votes
1answer
154 views

What are Kottabos players holding in their left hand?

What are these Kottabos players holding in their left hand? It is seen in a lot of similar pictures. It is as if the player refills the kylix from it. Is it a skyphos? Any info on this?
10
votes
1answer
5k views

Why did anti-Chinese riots occur during the Indonesian Reformation of 1998?

The protests and events in Indonesia in May 1998 led to the fall of the dictator Suharto, the reform of Indonesian government and political system, and a more liberal and democratic era. During the ...
6
votes
2answers
4k views

What is the source and history of “green on blue attack” expression?

Every time in the news when an Afghan attacks a US army the news say it is a „green on blue” attack, of course the green being the Afghan and the blue being the US/Nato soldier. What is the source ...
9
votes
2answers
750 views

Why did Operation Market Garden go ahead when the allies knew German armor was in the area?

Montgomery's ill-fated operation to capture the Rhine crossing at Arnhem was ingenious but fatally flawed. Evidence suggests that the Allies knew there were German armoured units in the town a few ...
1
vote
3answers
395 views

Was “Blitzkrieg” at least partly intended for trapping the Jews?

I encountered a point of view that the German tactic of "Blitzkrieg", besides purely military purpose to achieve victory as quick as possible, was in fact designed to trap the Jews so that they could ...
5
votes
3answers
550 views

What is the motivation of having heavy infantry to the right and light infantry to the left flank?

In Napoleonic wars era, a line contains mostly regular troops except for two kind of elite units, the heavy one, e.g. grenadiers, they normally are the bravest, strongest troops with the best stamina, ...
18
votes
2answers
692 views

Can Bill Clinton run for president of France?

Bill Clinton says in an interview (Bill Clinton on running for political office again) : Because I was born in Arkansas, which is part of Louisiana Purchase, any person anywhere in the world that ...
1
vote
1answer
104 views

What is the English name for the “Исламский джихад - Джамаат моджахедов” organization?

Russia's list of designated terrorist organizations contains a list of names that are easily identifiable, except this one that I can't identify: Исламский джихад - Джамаат моджахедов I could ...
2
votes
1answer
207 views

What involvement did Jonathan Edwards have with the Conspiracy of 1741?

According to this article: Rev. Jonathan Edwards delivered the hellfire and brimstone "spider" sermon, "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" in Enfield, Connecticut on July 8, 1741. This topical ...
4
votes
1answer
287 views

When did Kakinoki Kinsuke used a kite to enter the Nagoya castle

From different online sources I can find that the Japanese thief Kakinoki Kinsuke used a kite to fly over the wall of the Nagoya castle to steal certain golden parts of a statue. The thing I can not ...
7
votes
3answers
457 views

How did people acquire things in the pre-Roman Celtic world?

Today, when you want to acquire something that you don't make yourself, you buy it with money. How did people acquire things in the pre-Roman Celtic world? Let's say you wanted to acquire something ...
9
votes
1answer
479 views

Did the Safavid rulers require all subjects to convert to Shi'a Islam?

On one hand I've read that Shi'a Islam was the only religion allowed in the Safavid empire. On the other hand, the empire contained parts of Armenia and Georgia, but Armenians and Georgians are ...
4
votes
1answer
252 views

Is this true that the requirement to sacrifice to the Roman gods was put in by the Caesar only after Christianity emerged?

Is this true that the requirement to worship and to sacrifice to the Roman gods was put in by the Caesar only after Christianity emerged? I just encountered a statement that this requirement was put ...
4
votes
2answers
386 views

Which mythological/historical/fictional character is cited as a symbol for constant improvement or dogged persistence in re-doing his task? [closed]

I would rather ask this if there was a Stacks site for Literature. But, I need to ask it here: I am searching for a mythical or fictional (and if there is one, historical) figure (or tale, or animal, ...
8
votes
1answer
167 views

What surface area per person is required for hunter-gatherers?

I am sure I have read it somewhere, but I can't figure out in which book anymore (I think Steve Pinker's How the Mind Works) Most of human (pre-)history (and evolution) has happened in a foraging ...
0
votes
3answers
361 views

Which country was the first to separate (Christian) Church from state? [closed]

Which country was the first one , in which the Christian Church was separated from the state? I know it must be in Europe, but I don't know which one exactly.
6
votes
2answers
181 views

How would one have gone about setting up a business during Communist Revolutionary China?

In 1966, Mao Zedong launched a movement towards Socialism, to, solidify his power after a disastrous Great Leap Forward, called the Cultural Revolution. Though the movement moved towards a total ...
3
votes
1answer
608 views

Is the Terrorist Exclusion List (TEL) still used for anything?

Section 411 of the USA PATRIOT ACT of 2001 (8 U.S.C. § 1182) authorized the Secretary of State, in consultation with or upon the request of the Attorney General, to designate terrorist organizations ...
9
votes
1answer
175 views

1901 Boxer Protocol settlement to Norway

The Boxer Protocol was the settlement made in 1901 after the Boxer Rebellion in China. The victors, consisting of eight major Western powers, got large indemnities from the Chinese government, as well ...
10
votes
3answers
417 views

Army formation: veterans at the first line

I am trying to understand the early roman legion deployment. I can see some advantages to putting the inexperienced warriors at the first line and the veterans at the last. But have there been ...
9
votes
7answers
1k views

Which nations have armed prisoners and sent them to war?

I'm looking for examples of countries that have armed prisoners and sent them to war? Were the prisoners coerced, or were they offered amnesty should they survive?
33
votes
2answers
866 views

Were well-connected Germans able to park their sons in Norway during WWII?

Reading Antony Beevor's "The Second World War" he makes the point several times that a peculiar obsession of Hitler's was the defence of Norway and that there were close to half a million German ...

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