14
votes
3answers
699 views

If modern human existed for hundreds of thousands years why was writing invented only some 7000-9000 years ago?

Linguistic studies indicate that human languages were not that different from modern languages 6000 and 7000 years ago. They had distinguishable sounds, vowels, consonants, syllables, roots and stems ...
10
votes
3answers
517 views

What Was the State of German Tank Design In Between the World Wars?

I am reading about the Spanish Civil War in a book by Antony Beevor entitled "The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War 1936-1939". According to Beevor while the nationalists were able to control ...
12
votes
2answers
801 views

When did navies stop giving out a drink ration to their sailors?

I seem to remember that the British Navy, and the US Navy maybe, used to give out a ration of alcohol to sailors each day. When did this practice stop, and why?
6
votes
2answers
280 views

Information about the empire of King Dahir of India?

I am trying to find some information about the empire of King Dahir of India. For example, how much area did his empire constitute and where was it generally located? If anyone could also provide a ...
5
votes
2answers
531 views

Where can I find the history of military uniforms?

Is there any web resource that talk about the history and evolution of military uniforms? For example, development, history and evolution of uniforms of various Muslim, European, Asian, Indian ...
21
votes
6answers
3k views

Why did Hitler not concentrate more on North Africa?

The Germans knew that oil would be crucial to the war and that they would likely need to capture new sources for the war effort. The main oil-producing regions at the time that might be captured were ...
5
votes
1answer
163 views

Tolstoy's view of history

Tolstoy's view of history as propounded in his book "War and Peace" is that the forces that shape historical events are infinitely many and unknowable. He posits that a leader is in no ways more ...
7
votes
5answers
1k views

What are the latest publications demolishing the Aryan invasion/migration theory?

Recent findings in archaelogy and related fields have led scholars to replace "invasion" with "migration" in the "Aryan invasion" theory. E.g. Romila Thapar in this edition of The Penguin History of ...
12
votes
2answers
413 views

What can be considered to be the single most important reason for the decline of muslim Golden Age?

In the middle ages, Muslims established some powerful empires. They conquered vast land and shown considerable advancement in arts, science and culture. There were lots of Muslim philosophers and ...
5
votes
1answer
196 views

Was the “Mot Pulk” formation simply a propaganda ploy?

The "Mot Pulk" was a motorized formation used by the Germans during World War II. Based on when it was introduced (after heavy defeats in the USSR) and the vague descriptions that I've found, it ...
27
votes
5answers
10k views

How did Nazi Germany finance itself during WW2?

How did Nazi Germany finance itself during the war? They produced a large amount of war material during 1939-1945, but how was this production financed? What were Germany's revenue streams that ...
20
votes
1answer
491 views

What was the scale of eroticism in Byzantine theater?

When reading the texts of saint John the Chrysostome i found a very severe criticism of theater because of 'nude harlots' that could be seen there. I have also read some fragments of Procopius' Secret ...
13
votes
8answers
2k views

At the end of WWII, were nazis working on any other super weapon besides V-2?

At the end of WWII, were nazis working on anything else besides V-2? If so, what was it, how close was it to completion, and could it potentially turn the events around for them?
3
votes
1answer
138 views

Were there ever any documented cases about people with superior abilities? [closed]

Are there any records in the past about real people who possessed any superior powers? Extra strong, super fast, better than anyone else in something? I would like to know about someone like Goliath ...
6
votes
1answer
114 views

Why Was the Republican Government of Spain So Slow to React to the Nationalist Revolt?

I have been reading the Battle for Spain by Antony Beevor. One of the arguments the author makes is that the first 48 hours of the July 17th military uprising was the most vital period in which a ...
4
votes
4answers
7k views

Why are the democracies of France, Israel and India rated “Flawed Democracies”? [closed]

What does the term "Flawed Democracy" actually mean? Why are some of the world's successful democracies like France, Israel and India rated "Flawed Democracies" by the Economist Intelligence Unit?
7
votes
3answers
249 views

Is there any country where the founder of the nation is no longer respected?

Founders of nations are often known as the "Father of the Nation". These people are charismatic leaders who have gone through hardship in creating a nation for the independence of their country, and ...
17
votes
7answers
5k views

What do the modern Japanese people think about the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

Japan has been an ally of the USA for a long time now. On the other hand, every year they observe Hiroshima Day. Moreover, Japanese people visit Yasukuni Shrine. Then what is the catch?
8
votes
4answers
471 views

Why, even, various developed countries faced Coup D'etat, Dictatorship and/or Civil War but India didn't?

Various countries even that have highly developed democracy, economy and knowledge-based society faced Coup D'etat, Dictatorship and/or Civil War. India was an underdeveloped society, economy and had ...
8
votes
5answers
2k views

Why Europe became more developed although metal was first discovered and used in Asia/Africa?

Copper was first discovered and used in Middle East. Iron was first discovered in Egypt. What were the factors that allowed the development of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations (the father of ...
8
votes
3answers
214 views

Books on the history of modern China for pleasure reading? [closed]

I'm interested in learning about this history of modern China, which to me means roughly the 19th-20th centuries. I'm kind of interested in the industrial development of China, and its role during the ...
5
votes
1answer
264 views

What is the best way to describe the form of Japanese government during the years before and during world war 2?

Prior to the great depression, how much political power did the military, the emperor, and the prime minister of Japan have? Is it a form of monarchy, or does it resemble a military dictatorship? Did ...
6
votes
2answers
446 views

How much of a role did Sakamoto Ryoma play in overthrowing the Shogunate?

Sakamoto Ryoma is often portrayed in the Japanese media for his role in attempting to overthrow the shogunate during the Bakumatsu period. Since he was assassinated when he was still very young, the ...
6
votes
1answer
422 views

Why the USSR insisted on ban of the 1943 German film Munchhausen in Nuremberg?

After the war, many German films were shown in the USSR, popularly known as "trophy films", this included the 1944 "The Woman of My Dreams" which was shown until mid-1950s. At the same time the ...
6
votes
1answer
128 views

What calendar was used by the kingdom of Ireland?

For some research project I have, I need to identify some important dates, in order to do that - I'd be happy to know which calendar was used by the Kingdom of Ireland, specifically during the Irish ...
3
votes
5answers
2k views

Why did the the East-Pakistanis oppose Urdu as their national language while Indians accepted Hindi as theirs?

In 1947, Both India and Pakistan were given independence from Britain. India was able to establish Hindi as its national language with minimal problems. Pakistan on the other hand, was created with ...
22
votes
4answers
1k views

Why do minor political parties in the US receive so few votes?

Reading about the election statistics in the United States I was amazed about how few votes are received by the minor parties and their candidates. For example, Gloria La Riva received only 181 votes ...
13
votes
3answers
2k views

Did Joseph Stalin kill anyone personally?

I read "Stalin: Triumph and tragedy" by Dmitri Volkogonov and (I believe) it said that Stalin didn't kill anyone with his own hands. He signed a lot of "death lists", but those are just pieces of ...
6
votes
1answer
332 views

Were there opium dens in Russia during the 19th century?

The title says it all. I've tried searching information on opium use in Europe, but I can't find any source that says whether or not opium dens were ever prominent in Russia specifically.
3
votes
3answers
434 views

Why Canada failed to emerge as a power like UK or France?

My question is simple. What factors prevented Canada to become a power like UK or France? Or even Germany/Italy/Spain?
12
votes
8answers
8k views

Why did Canada, Australia and New Zealand separate from UK?

I asked this question in various places in the Web. I haven't received a clear answer. The USA separated from the UK because the people felt that they are not British, and they weren't. Weren't ...
9
votes
6answers
1k views

Why didn't Russia help Saddam Hussein as it is helping Syria now?

Wasn't Saddam an ally of Russia? If Russia wasn't his ally, who was his ally? Syria is looking like a strong ally of Russia as it was the case of Serbia. Russians played direct roles to save these ...
6
votes
4answers
2k views

Why did Joseph Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev and Leonid Breznev wear military uniforms when Lenin and the later Soviet leaders did not?

I know that dictators often wear uniforms to appear intimidating. Why did Joseph Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev and Leonid Brezhnev wear military uniforms when Lenin and the later Soviet leaders did not? ...
0
votes
1answer
454 views

Who was the French king during Pope Alexander VI (Borgia) [closed]

Who was the French king during Pope Alexander VI (Borgia) (watching Borgias TV Show) and interested. The one who started Italian wars.
6
votes
2answers
172 views

Did Demosthenes complain about inflation of prices in philippics?

Did Demosthenes complain about inflation of prices in his philippics caused by Philip II of Macedon's extensive gold mining? I have heard it somewhere but I can not find any refference.
11
votes
6answers
1k views

Why Napoleon was not executed or imprisoned?

I wonder why the Allies did not execute or imprison Napoleon for life after both times when he was captured. Even more, they risked by granting him an island in possession. This is quite illogical ...
5
votes
2answers
665 views

What was the argument for the Japanese pursuing the Northern Expansion Doctrine during WWII?

The Northern Expansion Doctrine was the idea that Japan should pursue its imperialist objectives through Siberia, which was diametrically opposed by the Southern Expansion Doctrine which was the idea ...
12
votes
3answers
964 views

Did Churchill and Roosevelt know about the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, or the following secret pacts between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union?

The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was the non-aggression pact between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany prior to, and during WWII. It seems that the actions of the two countries after the invasion of Poland ...
8
votes
1answer
348 views

How Successful Were the International Brigades?

During the Spanish Civil War (1936 to 1939) to what extent did the International Brigades play a role in fighting the fascists coup? My understanding is that they were a relatively minor element, ...
11
votes
3answers
1k views

Did anyone warn about the potential for stock market crashes in 1929, and if so why were their warnings ignored?

I can't seem to find information about economists, or others, warning about the overheated stock market of the 1920s in the US that would culminate in the stock market crashing on Black Thursday, ...
15
votes
1answer
3k views

Why did the Moors invade the Iberian peninsula?

Almost all of the information that I can find with regards to the Moorish invasion of the Iberian Peninsula simply states when the Moors invaded. There seems to be very little on what the motivation ...
14
votes
2answers
1k views

Why were universities created in the 11th-12th century?

I am specifically interested in information related to: the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, and the University of Oxford. From what I have been able to find so far universities were ...
0
votes
6answers
994 views

What was the reason of extreme anti-Communism in the first half of 20th century? [closed]

It is often alleged that a grand part in the success of the Nazi and fascist movements in Europe was their hard-line anti-Communism. Thy used anti-Communist sentiments to gain popularity and even many ...
5
votes
3answers
1k views

When did the Luftwaffe lose air-superiority over the Reich?

To me one of the many crucial stages of WWII was when the Luftwaffe were no longer able to mount serious resistance to the Allied bombing raids. While the effect of the raids if often debated, it ...
15
votes
3answers
382 views

What are the most comprehensive historical references for ancient India?

India is referenced in many ancient Greek and Persian sources, but these are often fragmentary. Which sources (if any) exist which describe ancient India in detail? Since ancient can be interpreted ...
10
votes
3answers
504 views

What sources or documentation exists to indicate Stalin's level of popularity in Russia today?

To what extent is Stalin still loved and/or respected by Russians (and for extra points former USSR states)? While articles like these news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7802485.stm ...
12
votes
3answers
4k views

Economic effects of the Cuban Revolution

What were the economic effects of the Cuban Revolution? Were living conditions improved for the average Cuban? I'm looking for objective criteria like average income, wealth distribution, life ...
8
votes
1answer
523 views

What is “Theoretical History”?

This question is highlighting something I have been meaning to ask, but haven't known how to go about it: What is the contemporary knowledge of the theoretical history? I'm particularly interested in ...
9
votes
4answers
448 views

Is there any evidence to support the claim that the US Strategic Defense Initiative played any significant role in undermining the USSR?

I have been reading Sorrows of Empire by Chalmers Johnson, and one of the things that stuck me was a quote by Soviet hydrogen bomb creator Andrei Sakharov who was released from political imprisonment ...
17
votes
2answers
347 views

When did it become acceptable to campaign for yourself for US President?

I am fascinated by the stark differences between election mechanics/strategies/policies of the early United States when compared to today. In the early days of the US, it was seen as "ungentlemanly" ...

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