6
votes
1answer
168 views

Vigenere vs. Bellaso

I noticed on the Wikipedia article for the Vigenere cipher, that: The Vigenère (French pronunciation: [viʒnɛːʁ]) cipher has been reinvented many times. The method was originally described by ...
13
votes
2answers
884 views

Are there any archaeological evidence for the Dorian Invasion in Greece?

My books on ancient Greece are pretty old. And they have have the same explanation for Doric vs. Ionic ethnicity/history. Are there any archaeological evidence for a Dorian invasion?
2
votes
1answer
5k views

What was normal attire for Hindu kings in the 15th century?

I was reading through "A History of India" by John Keay when I came across a few paragraphs which talk about Hindu kings' attire (or the lack of it) in the 15th century. Travellers like Ibn Battuta, ...
11
votes
1answer
947 views

What was the original cause of the Camel War in Islamic history?

There are different interpretations about the Camel War. Who started this war and why? Which side of the war was the aggressor? The leaders of both sides were from the companions of the prophet ...
6
votes
3answers
279 views

Why did the Erdoğan government like to worsen Turkey's relationship with Israel?

Turkey has long been an ally of Israel. Turkey bought a lot of military products from Israel. If Turkey hates Israel, they could have handled the situation much differently. Israel was in the process ...
0
votes
3answers
338 views

Why Americans like to enroll in military services despite huge risks involved? [closed]

Working in US military is one of the riskiest jobs in America because of the regular engagement in battles compared to other military in the world. I live in a third-world country. Even in my ...
9
votes
1answer
851 views

Latest recorded government sanctioned use of scaphism or cyphonism (torture)?

Scaphism, also known as "the boats", and cyphonism both seem to involve smearing an individual in honey and exposing them outdoors to insects for a prolonged period of time as a form of torture. ...
18
votes
1answer
378 views

Farming societies without calendars

Were there ever any farming societies without a calendar? For example, the Egyptians had a calendar to help them know when to plant and when to harvest. The ancient Greeks had a calendar, as did the ...
11
votes
4answers
2k views

What caused Iranians to convert to Shiite Islam?

Many old Iranians were Sunni Muslims. Even many of top Sunni scholars like Bukhari were Iranians. Also, most Arabs are Sunni Muslims. What was the historical effects(s) that caused Iranians to ...
4
votes
1answer
164 views

Pre-islamic cultural inheritance in contemporary Iran

In contemporary Iran, what are the effect of pre-Islamic Persian cultural heritage that are not linked to islamic culture, religion and literature? In a previous question, I asked about ...
1
vote
2answers
471 views

Iran: Zoroastrianism and Islam

If Zoroastrianism is so strong in Iran, why was there an Islamic revolution? Why is it proclaimed as the Islamic Republic of Iran?
4
votes
1answer
181 views

When and why China started to make a difference in the superpower arena?

China is starting to be more and more remarked on the superpowers' podium, but this surely didn't happened overnight, so what would be that decade that was very auspicious for China, and why?
11
votes
3answers
897 views

Why was Khomeini in France? Who allowed him to leave and why?

I never knew that Khomeini was in France until I saw What was President Jimmy Carter's role in the Iranian Revolution?. Why was Khomeini in France? Who allowed him to leave France and why?
13
votes
4answers
680 views

What historical conditions (culture, technology, events, etc.) contributed to China's current lead in population?

If their growth rate was comparable to the rest of the world over the past several millenia, then was it only a matter of having a "head start"? (If so, then how did this initial condition come to ...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

First US police officer killed in the line of duty

Who was the first US police officer killed in the line of duty? When and where did it take place? By US police officer, I mean any active-duty police officer working for any force in the US ...
23
votes
3answers
892 views

Why was language not used to establish dominance throughout England 1066 AD–1360s CE?

Why didn’t the Normans enforce the use of their native tongue throughout the whole of England after William the Conqueror (of Normandy) became king of England? During William’s reign as king he ...
3
votes
1answer
101 views

Was there other research focusing on the medical uses of ether in the 18th Century?

In recently seeing the John Moulton statue celebrating the first use of ether in Boston: it occurred that this sort of research usually doesn't happen in a vacuum. Were there other medical ...
6
votes
3answers
376 views

Plagues in Pre-European Americas?

Are there any historical accounts that those living in the Americas encountered a plague or plagues that proved to be as devastating on the population as that of the Bubonic (black) plague in Europe? ...
4
votes
1answer
159 views

Has the UK ever used the Diplomatic and Consular Premises Act 1987 to enter an embassy without approval?

The Diplomatic and Consular Premises Act 1987 allows the UK to remove the diplomatic status of any place. Has the UK already used this act to enter an embassy/consulate/etc? They recently threatened ...
5
votes
2answers
134 views

Where can I find financial data for the first world war? [closed]

I want to analyse the first world war on the financial aspect. Here are some of my questions. Which countries borrowed money to win the war? Where were weapons manufactured? Where can I get ...
3
votes
3answers
935 views

Was there a noble cause to Genghis Khan's campaign?

Genghis Khan has a reputation as a ruthless warlord and genocidal maniac, but I've heard rumors of him being a politician interested in unifying local tribes and bringing peace to the region. Was ...
17
votes
2answers
488 views

Has any foreign embassy ever been entered without permission?

I was just looking at this article: UK 'threatens' to raid Ecuador embassy over Assange "Today we've received a threat by the United Kingdom, a clear and written threat that they could storm our ...
7
votes
3answers
4k views

What was President Jimmy Carter's role in the Iranian Revolution?

Iran was a friend to the USA until Carter traveled to Iran and immediately afterwards Iran faced revolution. Khomeini went to Iran from France. On November 4, 1979, an angry mob of young Islamic ...
3
votes
1answer
403 views

Does Amnesty International maintain a list of prisoners of conscience?

Has Amnesty International ever maintained a list of people they officially designate as "prisoners of conscience" ? If yes, where can this list be found? Context: I have recently found this Wikipedia ...
10
votes
2answers
317 views

Were any of the major battle plans in WWII changed last minute by officers on the ground?

I haven't found any consistent reference to a particular battle wherein the battle plans were changed by a lower level officer on the ground at the last minute. Specifically, a major battle plan, not ...
3
votes
1answer
181 views

The original Lord Haw Haw's life in exile (Ireland)

I am writing a biography about my great uncle "Capt Tom Smith" who fought in WW1, WW2 and the Spanish Civil War During recent interviews the name Norman Baillie Stewart (wiki link) keeps cropping up ...
3
votes
2answers
385 views

UK involvement in Yugoslavia during WW2

What was the role and the level of involvement of the United Kingdom in Yugoslavia during the World War II ?
5
votes
2answers
261 views

How high the death rate on the Berlin Wall compared to other borders?

I read today on the Wikipedia's main page: There were numerous deaths at the Berlin Wall, which stood as a barrier between West Berlin and East Germany from 13 August 1961 until 9 November ...
11
votes
2answers
977 views

How was beer production affected by the war during WW2?

How did the war affect beer production during World War II? This is a follow-up question to this question at Seasoned Advice, which is gathering interesting food-science answers but which are are ...
10
votes
3answers
209 views

Tito's partisans loyalty

Why was Tito able to rally the loyalty of so much of the young people in ex-Yugoslavia, and the royalist Draza Michailovich (Драгољуб "Дража" Михаиловић) was not? The so-called chetnicks, loyal to the ...
10
votes
3answers
4k views

Early attempts to abolish slavery in USA

Were there any early attempts or debates to abolish slavery in the USA, before Lincoln?
11
votes
1answer
250 views

Is There A Term For The Old Maps That Had Lines Connecting Pin-Wheels?

Many old maps have lines like below. Is there a term for a map with that type of lines? (from http://r-russell0912-dc2.blogspot.com/2011/01/pirate-maps-and-old-maps.html) My best hypothesis is that ...
7
votes
2answers
197 views

How is the photography printing on newpaper is possible in the WW2 era?

How is the photography printing on newpaper is possible in the WW2 era? For example, how is the photo on the newpaper at the below link is possible especially on HD quality? ...
6
votes
1answer
4k views

Which have been the most and least successful Olympics in terms of economic impact?

When discussing the Olympics, politicians are always keen to stress the economic benefits that will flow to the host city. A number of commentators in the media though have suggested that the bulk of ...
20
votes
3answers
1k views

What was the legal framework in Ancient India?

We all know the immense contribution ancient Roman, medieval Roman (or Byzantine), and pre-modern HRE cannon law has made to the modern world. These empires relied on a written constitution (or code) ...
3
votes
3answers
378 views

Effects of deliberately creating inflation to eliminate domestic debt [closed]

T.E.D. commented on this answer: Sometimes (particularly in developing countries) they literally are printing more money. In the USA typically we increase the money supply to make up for some kind ...
4
votes
1answer
249 views

Who said that Saddam Hussein had WMDs?

To be more specific: Who said Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction in 2003? By "weapons of mass destruction", I mean atomic, biological, or chemical weapons. I'm looking for official ...
16
votes
2answers
5k views

What were the Nazi racial views on Hungarians and the Japanese?

Hungary and Japan were Nazi Germany's allies during WWII, yet it could not possibly be argued that the Japanese belong to the "Aryan race", and Hungarians speak a non-Indo-European language, which ...
3
votes
0answers
132 views

Is there any speech dialogue on record on Palestine independence day given by the Great Britain Prime minister?

Is there any speech dialogue on record on Palestine independence day on 1988 given by the Great Britain Prime minister? I know that Great Britain was once a proud supporter of Palestine.
3
votes
1answer
272 views

What are some major military successes achieved by the former Soviet Union against the Western World?

What are some major military successes achieved by the former Soviet Union against the Western World that shook the US and its cold war allies?
6
votes
1answer
159 views

Is it true that Mussolini agreed to implement anti-Jewish laws in exchange for expulsion of Germans from Northern Italy?

Once I have read that Mussolini was reluctant to implement anti-Jewish legislation despite German pressure but agreed to do so in exchange for expulsion of Germans from Northern Italy (including South ...
-1
votes
1answer
74 views

Has a country ever used an insurance company as a shield when the economy goes down? [closed]

Has a country ever used an insurance company as a shield when the economy goes down? I know that insurance companies have tons of money beforehand.
0
votes
1answer
86 views

Is there a different view by political-scientist in history that printing more bill is different from adding few more zeros in a bill [closed]

Is there a different view by political-scientist in history mention that printing more bill is different from adding few more zeros on the bill. I know some Africa country tend to doing that.
7
votes
1answer
705 views

During attack by Wahhabi Muslims of Saudi on Karbala city in Iraq, how many Shia Muslims were killed?

There are different stats about this. It is mentioned in different references, numbers ranging from 4000 to even 120,000. What is correct casualty count? Also did this attack really happened in ...
12
votes
2answers
306 views

How did France worsen its relationship with Turkey?

Several years back Turkey barred some French companies to participate in one of its arms procurement tender. Turkey doesn't allow French military air-crafts or ships to pass its territorial space. ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

Did Japan ever pay Russia war reparations after WW2? Why or why not?

Russia had the largest number of casualties during WW2, and Russia had taken many Japanese prisoners. So, why didn't Russia receive a reparation from Japan to help boost Russia's economy after the ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

Did the Olympics make the Star Spangled Banner the US national anthem?

A long, long time ago, I remember watching a TV miniseries about the first Olympics of the modern era in 1896. One of the amusing substories I remember involved the USA's National Anthem and the ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

When was federal sovereign immunity in the U.S. established?

Lawsuits against the federal government can be dismissed under the doctrine of sovereign immunity. For example, Al Haramain Islamic Foundation v. Obama was recently dismissed (Appeals court dismisses ...
7
votes
1answer
244 views

Is there any evidence for dual-wielding in the 12th Century?

To settle an office debate - I was wondering if there was any evidence for any soldier or knight in the 12th Century using two weapons at once - for instance, if a shield was dropped or wasn't ...
5
votes
2answers
184 views

What island in the Caspian sea did Ala Ad-Din Muhammad die on, after escaping Genghis Khan?

At the end of the invasion of Khwarezmia Empire, Genghis Khan chased Ala Ad-Din Muhammad to the Caspian sea, where he hid on an island and died several weeks later. However, none of the sources I can ...

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