1
vote
0answers
987 views

Martin Luther: Revolutionary or Conservative? [closed]

How, exactly was Martin Luther a revolutionary? How exactly was he a conservative? Out of these two websites: 1). http://projects.ecfs.org/eih/documents/LutherAdmon.html 2). http://pages.uoregon....
9
votes
1answer
384 views

Why did Britain object to the Ottomans bringing its ships-of-the-line against Russia in the beginning of the Crimean War?

I came across this in the "Background section" of Wikipedia article Battle of Sinop. Fighting at sea between Imperial Russia and the Ottoman Empire had been going on for weeks, and the Ottomans ...
4
votes
3answers
197 views

Who was the Ottoman who started as a slave boy and eventually became Grand Vizier by the time he was 80?

I seem to remember he lived around the 16th century.
8
votes
2answers
359 views

Was prostitution legal in the Kingdom of Israel during the reign of Solomon?

The wikipedia article is not clear: Prostitution was common in ancient Israel, despite being tacitly forbidden by Jewish Law. What was the law forbidding prostitution? Given that prostitutes ...
6
votes
1answer
111 views

The first head/chief/leader/etc of the Federal Housing Administration?

Did the FHA have a head? If it did who was he/she?
10
votes
2answers
234 views

Who is the banished Scottish King? (before 1560)

I've done some genealogy research in my family and found a man named "Simon Skragge". I've been searching information about this "Simon Skragge" online, and found this: Adl. ätten Skraggensköld (...
9
votes
1answer
828 views

Conscientious objectors in Germany during WWI

Was there a special treatment for conscientious objectors in Germany during WWI? I know that Britain had a process of exemptions, which was however rather harshly and sparingly administered (see wiki)....
6
votes
1answer
116 views

Where did Batista announce his resignation?

Wikipedia says, "On December 31, 1958, at a New Year's Eve party, Batista [then dictator of Cuba] told his Cabinet and top officials that he was leaving the country." The scene is famously depicted in ...
10
votes
1answer
114 views

Did the Socialist and the Fascist party share the electoral programme in Italy?

I was taught that in the early twenties the Socialist and the Fascist parties programmes were more or less identical, except for just one nationalist clause in the Fascist party's programme. Despite ...
8
votes
4answers
1k views

What were the key differences between United States' and Indian revolutions?

The Thirteen Colonies and Indian subcontinent were two of the most significant colonies of the British Empire, yet the former was able to gain independence via a rebellion relatively early on, whilst ...
7
votes
2answers
834 views

Did the French Revolution help produce French military “elan?”

In earlier wars against the British and Germans (e.g. the Seven Years' War of 1756-1763), French armies did not particularly distinguish themselves, even with a numerical advantage. Yet during the ...
5
votes
1answer
445 views

Did Andrew Jackson kill Dickinson fairly according to the customs of duels at the time?

Recently I read about Charles Dickinson, and his death on a duel with Andrew Jackson (then a general, later a US President). According to this link, Jackson killed him in a breach of dueling etiquette ...
5
votes
1answer
158 views

Did James Monroe and James Madison ever disagree? [closed]

I can't seem to find anything that they did butt heads about. Did they ever have any public disagreements that were recorded by history?
4
votes
2answers
540 views

Historically, how come we have 7 days in a week? [closed]

I know jewish culture tend to like number 7. What about other cultures? Do we have 7 days in a week from bible? Why do we derive 7 days a week from jews? Why not from more prominent culture, like ...
11
votes
5answers
983 views

Athenian Democracy - How were the citizens motivated to be so politically active?

Considering the city-state of Athens and its interesting idea of a direct democracy (550 B.C.), I am comparing and contrasting the political activity of ancient Athenians and modern Americans. ...
3
votes
1answer
94 views

More Scientific Discoveries Outside Academia Past 50 Years? [closed]

I heard someone claim there have been more scientific discoveries outside of academia, in industry, the past 50 years than in academia. Is this true? Has anyone tried to quantify this?
9
votes
1answer
532 views

What were French actions against Germany during September 1939?

In Poland "Phoney war" is treated as betrayal by UK and France, who only declared war against Germany and did not perform any other actions. This combined with Soviet attack on 17th September is said ...
9
votes
3answers
988 views

Did Mountbatten favour India in partition of India-Pakistan?

Christopher Beaumont's said that Mountbatten pressured Radcliffe to change the boundary in India's favour. See this BBC article: The documents repeatedly allege that Mountbatten put pressure on ...
8
votes
1answer
126 views

What is the significance of roof charms outside of the Forbidden City?

I've been travelling around Asia for a few months and one recurring theme is that in important places in China and Taiwan the buildings have "Roof Charms" on them. When I first encountered them in the ...
4
votes
1answer
68 views

What was the goal of Nicolas de Larmessin etched pictures of artisans?

Nicolas de Larmessin created etched pictures of many different artisans and skilled laborers. Does anyone know what the goal of this artwork was? They are very interesting and detailed images, but I ...
-1
votes
1answer
51 views

Why was Lakhdar Boumediene, in the Boumediene v Bush case, acquitted of his charges? And, why was the habeas corpus not suspended? [closed]

From my knowledge, the habeas corpus can be suspended in times of rebellion and danger of public health and safety. Wouldn't this be ground to ultimately suspend the habeas corpus in Bush's favor? (...
3
votes
1answer
97 views

Cultures of the image and cultures of the word

Steven Weinberg's 2002 review of Stephen Wolfram's A New Kind of Science contains the following: In this, Wolfram is allying himself with one side in the ancient struggle between what (with much ...
9
votes
1answer
361 views

Are there any historical sources that support the claim that ancient high-speed archers held multiple arrows in their hand?

Lars Andersen was able to fire off 10 arrows in 4.9 seconds by holding several arrows in his right hand. As a comparison, medieval archers were expected to shoot 12-20 arrows per minute, or 0.98 to 1....
3
votes
2answers
290 views

How did ruffs become fashionable and then went out of fashion?

Ruffs are the fluffy white loopy things that go around a person's neck and usually make a person's head look like a lion's mane. How did ruffs become fashionable and then went out of fashion?
4
votes
2answers
1k views

When were the 'last' pagans in northern Europe converted to christianity? [closed]

I've always found it interesting that the Reformation 'began' in Norther Europe. It strikes me that most of the various Christian sects seemed to form within different ethnic groups. So, I'm ...
6
votes
1answer
242 views

What were the factors that caused debtors' prison to disappear in most parts of the world in the 20th century?

Debtors' prison is a prison for people who are unable to pay debt. As recently as the mid 19th century, it was a common way to deal with unpaid debt in Western Europe. Debtors' prison started to ...
2
votes
1answer
149 views

What is the history of Research and Development laboratories?

When did Research and Development laboratories (R&D labs) emerge? What was the institutional and intellectual context? Have they undergone major changes in their nature? What role have R&D ...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

How did the Dutch East India Company (VOC) have so much revenue when they only control small part of Indonesia?

According to this, the VOC only controlled some ports, cities (like Batavia/Jakarta) and its surrounding. Yet, it seems to be a very successful corporation, mostly benefiting from the natural ...
7
votes
3answers
748 views

How were mounted infantry (like dragoons) used in battle?

During the Napoleonic Wars, Some troops performed as "mounted infantry", i.e. they rode horses to move, but dismounted and fought like infantry. Dragoons are usually given as examples. How was this ...
1
vote
1answer
106 views

what city was unix invented in? [closed]

Unix operating system (and the C language) was developed at Bell Labs by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie in 1970. What city did they invent it in?
2
votes
3answers
759 views

How did Castro gain control over the Cuban military and police?

The Cuban revolution was won by only a few hundred revolutionaries. But to run a state, especially an undemocratic one, you need to have control over the monopoly on violence. But enforcing a ...
18
votes
3answers
1k views

Why is the United States the only developed country whose labour laws leave most up to the employer? [closed]

I read this post: "Bad Facts About The USA". It says that the United States, Lesotho, Swaziland and New Guinea are the only countries in the world not to mandate paid leave for mothers of newborns. ...
7
votes
1answer
337 views

Was Ashoka motivated more by economics rather than religion in giving up war?

Is there any evidence to support the idea that Ashoka's aversion to war might have been due to inflationary economics rather than religion or remorse? Such as say the degradation in the value of coins ...
3
votes
2answers
122 views

When did the <input> tag come about, and in what web browser? [closed]

I realize that the <isindex> tag came first, but which browser was the first to support the <input> tag and when?
3
votes
1answer
147 views

M-1 rifle ammo and grenade invasion ration

How many rounds did US Army infantry carry on a beach landing? One belt of 10, 8 round clips? two belts? How many grenades?
8
votes
1answer
2k views

How big was the Golden Horde?

When one speaks of a horde, one usually thinks of an overwhelming number of people. However, the word horde comes from the Mongol Golden Horde, which I heard was frequently outnumbered in its ...
4
votes
2answers
220 views

What were the advantages of dual power in the beginning of Castro's Cuba

When discussing Castro's rise to power it occurred to me that he, Castro, was the one who initiated the dual power from January 1959 to November 1959, I have been struggling to find sources as to why ...
1
vote
2answers
206 views

What were the reasons for the Federal Art Project?

From August 29, 1935, until June 30, 1943 United States promote what they called Federal Art Project. Reputed to have created more than 200,000 separate works, FAP artists created posters, ...
6
votes
3answers
2k views

Why did Frederick the Great do so much worse against the Russians than against his other enemies in the Seven Years' War?

Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, made a name for himself and Prussia in the Seven Years' War, winning key battles against the French and Austrians at long odds. He won the battle of Rossbach ...
0
votes
1answer
880 views

Was the Dargah Shrine at Ajmer built over a Hindu temple?

This article points that the popular Ajmer Sufi Shrine (Dargah) of Khwaja Chisti in India was built on a demolished Hindu Temple (Varaha Temple). What are the historical sources for such a claim? The ...
7
votes
1answer
448 views

Who was in charge of the Barysaw massacre (20 October 1941)?

I'm looking for information about the Barysaw Massacre of 20 October 1941. Who performed it and who was in charge of this operation?
5
votes
2answers
352 views

The evolution of glove handness in falconry

I was led to believe that falconers (in Europe?) always used a glove on the left hand to handle birds of prey. However, this image show Mongol with birds on their right hands. So, how has the the ...
3
votes
1answer
91 views

When was first security screen door instaled in Seoul metro

My task is to document Seouls metro history. However, I'm from Czech Republic which limits selection of sites I can get data from. (I don't speak Korean, and google translate usually fails). Also, ...
12
votes
2answers
446 views

What do we know about the organizational structure of the Library of Alexandria?

The Royal Library of Alexandria is estimated to have had over half a million documents and house about 100 scholars, according to this article. This would suggest a fairly decentralized archiving ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Why did the welfare state succeed in Bismarck's Germany but lagged in 20th-century Britain?

Otto von Bismarck pioneered the welfare state in Germany and Bismarck was/is greatly respected by Germans. Pre-World War I British Liberal Party made welfare reforms after the 1906 general election. ...
9
votes
3answers
765 views

How and why did Polish rule over the Ukraine “downwardly deviate” from Lithuanian rule?

In the Middle Ages, "Lithuania" ruled over not only the modern Lithuania, but also modern Belarus and large parts of the Ukraine. The Ukrainiains seemed to accept Lithuanian rule for over two ...
1
vote
2answers
913 views

What was the relationship between ancient Egyptians and Hebrews in documented hieroglyphs? [closed]

Are there any documented sources about what happened in ancient Egypt? Particularly the relationship between Egyptians and Hebrews, as mentioned? E.G. were they best Friends or were so and so?
5
votes
1answer
605 views

Were the heavy war reparations on Germany after World War I the main cause of its hyperinflation in 1923?

World War I victors imposed severe war reparations on Germany. When Germany defaulted, France invaded the Ruhr which was the most heavily industrialized area in Germany to force reparations themselves....
2
votes
1answer
283 views

What were the civic privileges created for the Jews by Porcius Festus?

Festus inherited all of the problems of his predecessor in regard to the Roman practice of creating civic privileges for Jews. Only one other issue bedeviled his administration, the controversy ...
10
votes
1answer
210 views

How long was a journey “from the Varangians to the Greeks?”

Textbooks about Russian history often discuss the importance of trade routes "from the Varangians to the Greeks," which allowed ships to pass from the Baltic to the Black Sea using a network of ...

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