3
votes
0answers
114 views

When did the U.S. Postal Service completely transition from horse-drawn to motorized transport?

Simple question, hopefully not too broad. When did the USPS stop using horses & horse-drawn carriages for most of its transport and delivery? Were there any private competitors (such as ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Bears on Bicycles - What are early examples of photographs or paintings showing bicycles used with animals in circus acts?

Bicycles became popular during the early to mid-nineteenth-century. Around the same time, Isaac A. Van Amburgh was active as the first circus wild animal trainer. When did the practice of training ...
11
votes
4answers
611 views

Why didn't the Allies wait for the nuclear bomb before invading Normandy?

Congruent to the argument that dropping the bomb on Japan saved US and axis lives.
2
votes
0answers
72 views

Any sources on day to day governance in the ancient world? [closed]

EDIT: I've been asked to make this question simpler so here is my best attempt: I'm looking for sources, either primary, secondary, or even good pieces of historical fiction, that deal with the daily ...
6
votes
2answers
189 views

Why did the southern states have to be readmitted?

If the fed gov't said that the southern states Secession ordinances were illegal & therefore void why did they have to be readmitted after the war?
6
votes
1answer
171 views

What East German laws and regulations were extended to the West after unification?

Legally speaking, the reunification of Germany in 1990 was not a merger of two equal states resulting in a new country. Rather, it is better characterized as the absorption of the German Democratic ...
5
votes
2answers
178 views

Why did the United States under the Articles of Confederation have a hard time getting funding?

I see it written in many sources (examples: 1 and 2) that the central government under the Articles of Confederation could only "request" funds from the states. But the text of the Articles seems ...
3
votes
0answers
88 views

Motivations of the the First Crusade [duplicate]

What sort of balance in motivation existed for the first Crusade between answering a plea for assistance from the Byzantine Empire and reclamation of Jerusalem? Obviously it would vary between ...
12
votes
2answers
384 views

Why did Napoleon march to Moscow instead of Saint Petersburg?

When Napoleon decided to invade Russia in 1812, why did he target Moscow instead of Saint Petersburg? At the time, Saint Petersburg was the Capital of Russia, not Moscow (although Moscow may have had ...
3
votes
1answer
97 views

What political events led to the Separate Car Act that was upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson?

One often reads that in 1896 in the case of Plessy versus Ferguson, the United States Supreme Court let stand a Louisiana law, the Separate Car Act, that required white and non-white passengers to ...
6
votes
2answers
201 views

Who are all the people in this photo of the signing of the Civil Rights Act, 1964?

I've been trying to figure this out for a while, and it's really bugging me. Seeing Robert F. Kennedy (if I'm right) in the background there made me really curious about everyone else around Lyndon ...
3
votes
1answer
91 views

When did Frankfurt am Main adopt the Gregorian Calendar?

The Gregorian Calendar was adopted in Habsburg lands in 1583. As Frankfurt am Main was a Free City within the Holy Roman Empire, it fell under direct control of the [Habsburg] Emperor. However, if I ...
5
votes
1answer
350 views

Was 18th century Prussia really so militarily obsessed?

I'm reading A Military History of Germany by Martin Kitchen, and I was surprised at the description of 18th century Prussia. The country is described as a North-Korea like military obsessed nation, ...
-3
votes
1answer
230 views

Did the Vikings ever encounter the Celts or Pichs in the middle ages [closed]

In the 5th century AD, Rome withdrew their military from Britain, leaving behind the unconquered celts of the north.I've read about much of the Vikings exploits e.g their discovery of America and ...
-2
votes
1answer
128 views

What kind of political institutions existed in Sakai, Japan in the 500s and 600s AD?

What government bodies were elected and by whom in Sakai Japan during the 500s and 600s AD?
1
vote
1answer
111 views

What percent of the Roman Republic's population were citizens in various centuries? [closed]

Does anyone have any sources mentioning the percentages of citizens at various times, or the populations of citizens and corresponding total populations so I can calculate percents? I looked at dozens ...
1
vote
1answer
216 views

Who is this person?

I came across with the following picture, which is a little blurry and unclear. Unfortunately I couldn't find anything about it. Can anybody help me ?
0
votes
0answers
75 views

Historical information about dustmen in Edwardian England

I'm helping a middle schooler who was assigned Shaw's Pygmalion. I found a nice write-up about flower girls but now I need something about dustmen. For example, why does Alfred Doolittle, dustman, ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

When was the first pentecostal church created? [closed]

When and where was the first pentecostal church created?
3
votes
1answer
105 views

What percent of Sparta's population were citizens in various centuries?

I've found sources saying that Sparta's population was about 3% citizens, but obviously that number fluxed over time, and given that at one point the Spartan Empire was about 80% helots, it makes me ...
7
votes
2answers
311 views

Computer business in 1969

Mad Men, season 7, episode 4, describes the computer business in 1969 as follows. IBM would lease computers to businesses, but would do so only for short leases, and would replace them with newer ...
0
votes
3answers
185 views

What does 'a long train' mean in the Declaration of Independence

As a child I always imagined a bunch railroad cars, yet from my understanding the railway system didn't really appear until the 1800's. And, if there was no steam engine to pull the cars, the only ...
7
votes
1answer
220 views

During the American Civil War, were cavalry units issued horses?

When a cavalry unit was raised during the Civil War, were the men issued with horses or did they use their personal horse? For example, 1st Arkansas cavalry (Union) was a western unit made up ...
-1
votes
1answer
141 views

Which Union General identified the defensive value of Cemetery Hill?

Who was the first Union general to realize the significance of Cemetery Hill during the battle of Gettysburg (1863) as a defensive position: Buford, Reynolds, Howard, or Hancock? They each claim to be ...
0
votes
1answer
146 views

What was the first regular airline service to pass low over urban areas?

These days, living in a big city, it's a complete non-event to look up into the sky and see a plane passing overhead. It happens several times every day. Therefore it's quite amazing to thing that at ...
5
votes
2answers
171 views

What was the first map of Antarctica having a shape based on real evidence?

Antarctica was the last continent to be discovered, and the first confirmed landfall was on January 24, 1895. However, most discussions of "early" world maps seem to peter out well before that, such ...
3
votes
3answers
282 views

How Effective Were German SS Units Compared to Non-SS Heer Units?

As World War Two progressed, Hitler ordered the formation of more and more "SS" or "Schutzstaffel" divisions. I am aware that these units often had priority for reinforcements and supplies, but how ...
3
votes
4answers
281 views

Magic armies examples in history?

Are there any examples of attempting to use magic in history? Note that I don't mean magic is real. I mean that some crazy commanders could THINK it is real and try to utilize it in battle. For ...
14
votes
2answers
2k views

When was France fully liberated?

Speaking of metropolitan France (the 'Hexagone' + Corsica), when was France fully liberated of German occupying forces at the end of World War II? We all know of the D-Day landings in Normandy in ...
2
votes
1answer
128 views

Did cakes exist before the discovery of sodium bicarbonate?

I recently learned that baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was only discovered in the 19th century, which made me wonder - did cakes as we think of them exist before that?
6
votes
0answers
102 views

How much would votes sell for in early America?

I am reading an essay by Alfred F. Young right now in which the author mentions that Gouverneur Morris said of enfranchising those without property: Give the vote to people who have no property ...
2
votes
1answer
126 views

What was the motivation behind prohibiting hunting in King's forests?

One of the typical pop culture motifs surrounding the Merry Men stories is the concept of them poaching the game and being hunted by the Law (or at least, Wardens) for that. This seems rather ...
0
votes
0answers
90 views

What gift did Saladin send to Richard when he was ill?

What gift did Saladin send to Richard when he was ill? This is a question I got asked in m H|W and I didn't find it. Please, can anyone help me?
4
votes
1answer
128 views

Did any of these artists ever meet?

Leonardo da Vinci, Michaelangelo, Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (Raphael) and Donato Bardi (Donatello) are some of the most prominent and influential artists of the Renaissance period. Three of the four ...
-4
votes
2answers
162 views

Soviets, their war equpment and performance in WWII [closed]

If the Soviets excelled in their military equipment, why were the Germans able to inflict such heavy casualties on them through-out the war?
6
votes
0answers
129 views

Has being a single mother been always stigmatized?

Being a single mother was obviously a big economic disadvantage. And in the times when the Christian church morality dominated every day life, being a single mother was obviously a proof of a sin. But ...
2
votes
1answer
161 views

Why were Greek philosophy and sciences taken up by medieval Muslim civilizations, but not contemporary Western Europe?

Greek-based philosophy and sciences were taken up in the medieval Islamic world. A lot of these works were translated into Arabic, and were later developed further and these contributed to the ...
2
votes
2answers
236 views

Did von Manstein push for mass production of late models PzKpfw IV over Panther or Tiger?

I read this claim somewhere, but cannot possibly find the source of it - did Erich von Manstein prefer large numbers of medium tanks PzKpfw IV over small numbers of heavy tanks?
3
votes
1answer
119 views

How is it known that Xenophon saw the ruins of Nineveh?

It seems commonly accepted that Xenophon saw the ruins of Nineveh during the Ten Thousand Retreat. In the days of the Greek historians Ctesias and Herodotus, 400 BC, Nineveh had become a thing of ...
-3
votes
1answer
99 views

How many warriors (troops) did feudal vassals have to provide to the king? [closed]

In a medieval feudal system, how many knights and warriors did a vassal have to give to the king in time of war?
-1
votes
1answer
117 views

What divided the Roman Catholic church from the Orthodox church? [closed]

What incident or reason divided the Roman catholic church from the orthodox church of Russia. And who decided the differences between the two churches and faiths?
-1
votes
1answer
79 views

Country/Area joins war after claiming neutral then attacking [closed]

I don't know a whole lot about wars or the history of, so this is possibly an easy question. Has there ever been an instance where a country or area that declared neutral, but instead of joining a war ...
2
votes
0answers
75 views

Did North African countries have a police in the 18th/19th Century?

This is just a derived question from my other question about firefighters. I wonder if there have been special forces for security like what we call police nowadays or at least nightwatchmen in ...
4
votes
0answers
78 views

Who where the firefighters in Muslim North Africa in the 18th/19th Century and how were they organized?

As we know that the Romans already had some forces for keeping their cities secured and safe: The Vigiles who were what we now may call police and firefighters together! And as I failed to find some ...
1
vote
1answer
151 views

Accidental wars [closed]

I'm curious to know if there have been any armed conflicts that are generally regarded as full blown wars (i.e. not border skirmishes) which were started accidentally. By accidentally, I mean ...
0
votes
2answers
121 views

System of Government where the Same Family Cannot Inherit

I have been trying to find evidence of a system of government where one of the principles it works on would be to hinder the creation of effective political families (thereby allowing people to ...
3
votes
2answers
238 views

Why was there a reference to the Battle of Hastings in Harper Lee's novel?

I am unfamiliar with details of European history; how is the Battle of Hastings relevant to the historical background in Harper Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird? Chapter 1, Paragraph 4: Being ...
0
votes
1answer
133 views

When was the last time the Catholic Church excommunicated a government official for political reasons?

The Roman Catholic Church has a long history of excommunicating people. These days it is mostly constrained to excommunicating bishops who break with doctrine. The Pope regularly sends letters to ...
3
votes
1answer
154 views

What did the Allied WW1 propaganda for the Germans say?

I recently came across this passage of Mein Kampf where Hitler praises the effectiveness of WW1 Allied propaganda over the German people: At first the claims of the propaganda were so impudent ...
0
votes
1answer
68 views

WWII documentary series with end credits that used a diorama

I remember a series about World War II where the end credits were shown over a camera that panned over a diorama that show the progress of the war that started with normal scenes that slowly ...

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