8
votes
1answer
495 views

How did Poland avoid partition in the 17th century, but not the 18th century?

During the "Deluge" of 1648-1667, Poland was invaded and largely overrun by Sweden and Russia, the latter supporting dissident Ukrainian rebels. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deluge_(history) Yet, ...
5
votes
4answers
622 views

Looking for a symbol for Southern USA communism

For a novel I'm writing I'm looking for a symbol, akin to hammer and sickle, that would represent a socialist republic created in Florida plus a but of Alabama and surrounding states. The hammer in ...
5
votes
1answer
264 views

Was Horst Tappert a member of the SS?

It was recently reported that German TV actor Horst Tappert (1923 - 2008) had been identified as having been a member of the Waffen SS in World War II. However, it was also reported that a German ...
13
votes
4answers
1k views

Why is Finland represented as a Soviet satellite in this 1947 cartoon?

The cartoon is a British one. I found it at http://lenta.ru/articles/2013/05/28/secretwar/ but without any specific attribution.
6
votes
1answer
990 views

How many USA men dodged the draft in Vietnam, and how?

During the Vietnam war, men who should serve just didn't, hiding or something else. Are there any numbers as to how many men should have served but didn't? Also, is there some information about what ...
8
votes
1answer
443 views

How is history studied?

What are the unique and distinct features of the study of history in terms of: Epistemology Purpose Theory Method Methodology Does the study of history produce unique perceptions? Does the ...
12
votes
5answers
5k views

How is the discipline of History differentiated from other disciplines in social sciences or the humanities?

History is a discipline in the academy that is sometimes a social science and sometimes a humanity. However, there are many other social sciences (e.g., economics, political science) and many other ...
8
votes
1answer
3k views

What is the difference between a professional historian and an amateur?

Some historians appear to practice history professionally, in the sense that they produce histories that are accepted by other historians as "real" and "full." In this sense there is a profession of ...
7
votes
1answer
162 views

What are legitimate methods and sources?

How does a historian or an amateur determine what legitimate methods can be used and what legitimate sources are? Obviously there are many methods to read texts and speculate about political, social, ...
14
votes
2answers
618 views

What do historians do when there are no sources?

Historians rapidly come up against absence sources: the documentary record of the past is by its nature fragmentary, selective, partial and obtuse. What strategies do historians use when there are ...
4
votes
1answer
276 views

What is the nature of questions that can be answered by historical sources and methods?

What is the nature of questions that can be answered by historical sources and methods? Pay attention to the qualities of sources that inspire the nature of valid historical questions. Pay ...
5
votes
3answers
964 views

Did the Greeks win the battle of Salamis because their rowers were “free”?

While I was at university in the late 1970s, I was told by a faculty advisor that the Greek rowers at the Battle of Salamis were given cushions that greatly increased their comfort and efficiency (and ...
11
votes
5answers
9k views

How widespread was the practice of chaining slave rowers to the ships?

In many historical paintings one can see slave rowers chained to the ships. I wonder whether this practice was indeed widespread? Were the chains permanent or allowed quick disconnection? Were the ...
6
votes
1answer
478 views

Who gave Charles the Bold his nickname and why?

I am talking about the Duke of Burgundy here. Wikipedia has a tantalizing footnote (n. 1): Charles le Téméraire is more accurately translated in English as "the Rash", but the English speaking ...
10
votes
2answers
2k views

How tall was George Washington?

I am currently reading George Washington: A Life by Ron Chernow, which says George Washington was an even 6 feet (183cm) tall: It is commonly said that Washington stood six foot two or three, an ...
4
votes
1answer
976 views

Did the pope try to suppress the number zero?

What evidence exists to indicate that the Pope attempted to suppress the number zero? In an editorial review, Rob Lightner claims that "Zero: The Biography of a Dangerous Idea", by Charles Seife, ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

Time it takes to build siege engines

How long did it take to build various siege engines? I understand this can vary widely based on the size of the engine etc., but I'd be interested in somehow average values. Let's say a stationary ...
4
votes
1answer
529 views

To what extent was the Cold War caused by post World War 2 economics?

Quite a while ago I wrote an essay for college on the causes of the First Cold War (Seeing as in some schools of thought, the Cold War can be split into 2 distinct "conflicts" or stages) looking ...
16
votes
4answers
3k views

In ancient Rome, did a lot of people feel guilty about owning slaves?

Do we have historical evidence which shows whether significant number of people felt guilty about owning (without necessarily abusing) slaves in the ancient Roman era, e.g. 1-2 century AD?
15
votes
1answer
1k views

What role did the Eastern Roman Empire play in the fall of the Western Roman Empire?

What role did the Eastern Roman Empire play in the fall of the Western Roman Empire? Did the Eastern Empire actually contribute to the fall of the West? Was the Eastern Roman Empire able to help the ...
18
votes
2answers
740 views

How much of an impact did the Roman emperors' civil wars have on their decision to debase the coinage?

From Adrian Goldsworthy's How Rome Fell: "Civil war remained a common event, ...the economy collapsed, as successive emperors massively devalued the coinage to pay for their wars." Other sources say ...
-1
votes
2answers
122 views

Government started within another government

Has an independent constitution ever been enacted and claimed the territory of another independent constitution in whole or part, and did its government actually exist after enactment within the ...
2
votes
1answer
4k views

Alexander, Olympias, and Zeus in Giulio Romano's painting

According to the myth, Alexander the Great was conceived through the sexual intercourse of Olympias and Zeus, as shown in the below painting by Giulio Romano. But, who is the man whose face is showed ...
7
votes
3answers
432 views

Until 1600, was it legal to counterfeit money?

Forging money or currency is more often called counterfeiting and, as is well known, the counterfeiting of money is usually attacked aggressively by today's governments. But, generally speaking, was ...
3
votes
1answer
616 views

In U.S. military forces, did black soldiers suffer a heavy racial segregation during World War II?

Source: BBC In his book, Mr Hitchcock raises another issue that rarely features in euphoric folk-memories of liberation: Allied looting, and worse. "The theft and looting of Normandy ...
7
votes
1answer
441 views

Cover Art of “Álbum de la Revolución Cubana”

On the cover of the famous "Álbum de la Revolución Cubana": Who is the person whose face is painted in the top-right corner? What is his importance? Is the cover (where we see Fidel Castro actively ...
3
votes
1answer
772 views

What compelled Benjamin Disraeli to label 1857 revolt as a “National Revolt”?

It is still debated whether the Indian Rebellion of 1857 in British India was just a soldiers' mutiny or a National revolt for the independence. But in July 1857, in House of Commons, Benjamin ...
7
votes
1answer
299 views

Ancient statue I found near my place

I have found an ancient statue covered in the ground. I am from Haifa, Israel. There are no old buildings nearby. Here is its photo; I don't know what it is! I would like to know what period this ...
3
votes
1answer
144 views

British colony in Berlin

Yesterday's [23rd May 2013's] IHT had this interesting historical news clip in its 100, 75, 50 years ago section. It refers to a British colony in Berlin in 1913 of which Mr. J. W. Louth was ...
11
votes
5answers
717 views

Have any armies equipped/fed their officers and enlisted men equally?

In the Soviet army during WW2 the officers had bigger food rations. They also had better boots (kirza vs. leather). The air force pilots were fed even better (but that is not very relevant). What ...
12
votes
1answer
266 views

Are submarine launched ballistic missiles still inaccurate?

In the early 1980s documentary First Strike, one of the arguments made for the development of the MX missile program was that in the event of a massive Soviet attack on the land-based missile and ...
3
votes
1answer
537 views

How much did the Chinese Summer Palace cost to build?

According to Wikipedia, Empress Cixi embezzled 30 million taels of silver from the modernization of Qing Navy to build the Summer Palace. What is 30 million taels of silver equivalent to in modern ...
4
votes
2answers
279 views

What role did British cartoonists play in the early 1800?

Can anybody explain the historical context and the reasons for which the comic below, preserved to the British Museum, was painted? What is its meaning? Why is Napoleon so little? And, more generally,...
2
votes
1answer
79 views

The Constitution of the United States: Background material for the original, esp. the Bill of Rights?

During the work and debate around the Constitution of the United States; where there much background-material like surveys, notes and minutes (from debates)? How much of such material have survived? ...
5
votes
1answer
212 views

Did the American Founders Debate on the Relative Size of the Government?

It seems to me that the concern with the size of government, specifically that it's too large and therefore complex, is a relatively modern concern in American politics. I would assume that given the ...
27
votes
4answers
25k views

Why didn't the US choose to demolish Tokyo with an atom bomb?

Tokyo was Japan's capital. Why didn't the US choose Tokyo to demolish with Atom Bomb? Bonus Question: What factors decided to bring Hiroshima and Nagasaki on table?
17
votes
2answers
4k views

How did people realize that America was a different continent?

American schools teach that the American continents are named after Amerigo Vespucci because he realized that Columbus had not sailed to Asia but rather a new continent. If this story is true, how ...
8
votes
2answers
834 views

What did the Phoenician sailor trader eat?

I am not a historian my self, but I like to read history, ancient history. I am reading now about Phoenician civilization. I noticed in Wikipedia : the Phoenicians were the major naval and trading ...
4
votes
1answer
333 views

The role of the two world wars in the evolution of Fordism

What is the role of the two world wars in the evolution of Fordism ? I've read that Fordism entered Europe due to the WW I, but I've also read that the Fordism began to be effective after the WW II. ...
3
votes
0answers
111 views

Which is closer to Old Dutch? [closed]

The Dutch dialects spoken in Belgium and the Netherlands are diverse, but if a general statement can be made, which, as spoken today, is closer to the root of the language?
14
votes
1answer
774 views

What were Argentina's intentions for the Falkland Islanders?

Argentina must have assumed in 1982 that its occupation of the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) would be successful and that Argentinian sovereignty over the territory would be accepted. What were the ...
4
votes
2answers
260 views

Epoch of an item marked with anchor symbol with the letters N and D

I found in an antique shop in France the item seen below and would like to know more about the age and origin and material based on the logo/mark. The seller told me it is from the Napoleon III epoch ...
3
votes
3answers
588 views

Was there discrimination against Jewish people at the entrance exams to the most prestigious universities in the USSR?

The most prestigious universities in the USSR discriminated against Jewish applicants. Tanya Khovanova (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA) wrote: This is a special ...
0
votes
1answer
410 views

The effects of war on the workforce

It seems to me that a war have two opposite effects on the post-war workforce : it decreases the active population because of the deaths it increases the active population by mobilizing women (who ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

U.S. Marine Corps and Why does the Navy’s army need its own air force?

A recent interview by C-SPAN host Brian Lamb with Washington Post staff writer Rajiv Chandrasekaran touched on many controversial issues of the F-35 acquisition program where evidently a lot of pork ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Eastern and Southern Europe in the medieval time period?

What were Eastern and Southern Europe like in the medieval period? Did Southern and Eastern Europe have knights and castles like Western Europe? I've never heard for example of Italian knights in the ...
16
votes
1answer
819 views

What was it like for a coastal village to experience a Viking raid in around the tenth century?

Were fishing villages really completely at the mercy of these Vikings, or could they defend them selves? Did villagers have their own weapons? Could they expect any support from a Lord or Land Baron? ...
3
votes
3answers
169 views

Parable of the broken window and 1929 crisis

I've read that, in 1938, economic crisis was taking back, and that it's the war effort that finally closed the 1929 crisis. Is it not a version of the parable of the broken window ? How a war effort ...
0
votes
1answer
86 views

What uncertainties and questions surround the death of Attila?

Merriam-Webester's Concise Encyclopedia says Attila died on his wedding night, possibly murdered by his bride. What uncertainty does the word possibly imply there about the death of Attila?
5
votes
0answers
51 views

Origin of land-lottery system

A report from 1894 describes the Musha'a land tenure system in the Arab villages of Palestine: the agricultural lands of the village are considered common property, and they are divided each year ...

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