2
votes
1answer
91 views

Help to identify old Firefighter badge

arge metal badge with enamel logo, with five birds on it
2
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1answer
155 views

Is there a painting from before the colonization of the Americas depicting travelers from far away visiting European nobles?

Is there a painting from before the colonization of the Americas depicting European nobles being entertained or given gifts by travelers from far away places, such as sub-saharan Africa or India? I'm ...
2
votes
1answer
95 views

Thoroughbred horse history on British Islands prior to 1686

It is well established, but oft overlooked, fact that almost all thoroughbred horses on the British Islands trace their ancestry to a single stallion, called Darley Arabian, brought to Britain by one ...
2
votes
2answers
165 views

How was Chinese Communism connected to the New Culture Movement?

Looking for ways that the New Culture Movement was associated with Chinese Communism or the Chinese Communist Party.
2
votes
2answers
218 views

Russian war reparations from Germany post WW2 [closed]

Is there any record of negotiations(if any), regarding war reparations from Germany to Russia following WW2, if there were reparations paid by Germany to Russia following WW2, do they have an impact ...
2
votes
1answer
103 views

Is the Tokugawa escape scene in Clavell's “Shogun” historically accurate?

In the TV miniseries, Shogun, based on James Clavell's novel of the same name, there is a scene in which the Tokugawa Ieyasu character is one of five regents but seems to be trapped in a castle in ...
2
votes
1answer
131 views

French revolution: the source of the conflict in the meeting of the Estates General

In the article on the French Revolution Wikipedia says: "The Estates-General convened in the Grands Salles des Menus-Plaisirs in Versailles on 5 May 1789 and opened with a three-hour speech by ...
2
votes
3answers
195 views

Did the proto-Indo-Europeans displace or overlay the pre-existing European tribes?

The various proto-Indo-European groups which entered European in the 2nd millennium BCE replaced local languages very thoroughly. Basque and Sami might be remainders of pre-PIE people's languages. ...
2
votes
1answer
604 views

What machine technology did the Egyptians have to build the great pyramids?

Reading the "Account of Egypt" by Herodotus, it says of the great pyramid of "Cheops" (Macauley translation): This pyramid was made after the manner of steps which some called "rows" and others ...
2
votes
1answer
140 views

When did the US adopt a special way of folding the flag?

In the US, there's a proper way to fold the flag. From what I can tell, there is no equivalent method in the UK. When did the US adopt this special method for folding the flag?
2
votes
1answer
180 views

Do revisionist historiographies come closer to “unbiased truth”? [closed]

Historiography, the practice of historians, regularly revises historiographical accounts of history. The revision of history, or "historical revisionism," often involves raising new concepts or ...
2
votes
1answer
181 views

What is the age of Machu Picchu principal temple?

Brian Foerster in this video tells a theory that Incas built their city on top of an older one, judging by the difference in the block material (granite), size, and the precision of their composition. ...
2
votes
1answer
162 views

When was encrypted voice over radio first used?

I have been trying to find when encrypted radio's were first used? Not something like the German Enigma that transmitted encrypted data but when a person could actually talk to another person over an ...
2
votes
1answer
61 views

What computer was used in 1958 for handwriting recognition by Dimond?

I've just seen that the article Dimond, T. L. "Devices for Reading Handwritten Characters". Papers and Discussions. Presented at the December 9-13, 1957, Eastern Joint Computer Conference: ...
2
votes
1answer
110 views

What was the judicial body in 16th century France called?

I was listening to a series of audio lectures on Religious wars in Europe. In the lecture on French wars of religion, there was a mention of a judicial authority in Paris. However, I couldn't catch ...
2
votes
1answer
87 views

ancient Egyptians and the Nile Headwaters

When did the ancient Egyptians discover or reach the Nile Headwaters?
2
votes
1answer
231 views

What are the highest and biggest half-timbered buildings built during medieval era?

In any part of present Europe, let's say before the fall of Constantinople (1453 AD). Also if you can show me a drawing or a picture (if these buildings are still there), I would appreciate it. Also, ...
2
votes
2answers
150 views

Gettysburg: What was in the letter?

I've just watched the wonderful movie "Gettysburg" and couldn't help noticing the stuff in the opening about the letter... That the Confederates had prepared a letter that should be put on President ...
2
votes
1answer
74 views

Have Paralympics been the specific target of boycotts?

Prior to Sochi, have countries completely or partially boycotted Paralympic games as a political protest in and of itself, without it being the follow-on of the Olympics being boycotted? Non-example: ...
2
votes
2answers
427 views

What specifc training occurred for members of medieval military orders?

What were the dominant martial and clerical themes to the training of knights in medieval military orders? Were there specific fighting or training techniques, or weapons, adopted to meet religious ...
2
votes
1answer
273 views

In the History Channel series the Vikings, who is Ragnar? [closed]

I've been watching the Vikings series on Amazon and I am curious who Ragnar, the main protagonist is supposed to be based on? I think he is supposed to be the "first" viking leader to raid England. I ...
2
votes
1answer
193 views

Was the 18th century Russian peasant braver; or simply more afraid of Cossacks?

Frederick the Great famously noted after the Battle of Zorndorf that "It's easier to kill the Russians than to win over them." For that same battle the Russian commander (William Fermor) is noted as ...
2
votes
1answer
589 views

What is the origin of Jataka tales?

Some of the Jataka Tales are supposed to be about the Buddha in prior lives so the entire collection is touted as Buddhist by many. However, other sources will say they are tales handed down through ...
2
votes
2answers
617 views

What types of Poison gasses were used in World War 1? [closed]

Due to the nature of trench warfare, some form of poison gasses would have been really useful in the trenches. In the trenches the gasses really would’ve been really useful with the limited mobility ...
2
votes
1answer
272 views

Why did Alexander found or rename a number of places after himself?

According to Wikipedia, Alexander founded or renamed each of the following places after himself: Alexandria, Egypt Alexandria Arachosia, Afghanistan; now called Kandahar (a contraction of ...
2
votes
1answer
99 views

Inflation After Executive Order 6102 (FDR Leaving GoldStandard)

I'm looking at this image which implies that the US leaving the Gold Standard started revival after the Great Depression. I'm thinking that it could all be explained with rapid inflation due to the ...
2
votes
4answers
89 views

Know of any historical tales in which a man kills the woman he loves as a sacrifice in the name of duty, religion, etc.? [closed]

Know of any historical tales in which a man kills the woman he loves as a sacrifice in the name of duty, religion, etc.? I'll take mythological tales too, but for the purposes of the novel I'm ...
2
votes
1answer
203 views

What repercussions did Agrippina's murder have for Pompeii?

This review of a book about Pompeii has an intriguing remark (emphasis mine): There is an emphasis within this book on weaving both Imperial and provincial figures, events and episodes into the ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

When was the Eastern Front founded?

I am talking about the Eastern Front coalition in Sudan. Although the article on Wikipedia is informative, I can't see when it was founded, or when the groups that make it up were founded (except for ...
2
votes
1answer
137 views

Why were Catholic priests prohibited from participating in ordeals but allowed to participate in inquisitions?

Pope Innocent III prohibited priests from participating in ordeals during the Fourth Lateran Council, but Pope Innocent IV later allowed torture in inquisitions. What is the ideological difference?
2
votes
3answers
319 views

Were scientists in Ancient Egypt Egyptian, or were they from other regions?

Do we have knowledge of any scientists of Ancient Egypt? If yes, were they originally from Egypt, or were they from other regions such as Europe, North Africa or Asia? Any examples?
2
votes
2answers
239 views

Is there any history magazine like “Foreign Policy” for politics? [closed]

I'm a college student. I'd like to read a history magazine (online preferred) that relates to History in the same way that "Foreign Policy" relates to Politics or "The Economist" relates to Economics. ...
2
votes
1answer
680 views

What was the natural population growth of Scotland between 1600 and 1900?

By natural, I mean as a result of births and deaths, rather than emmigration and immigration. I can find data for the total population size (e.g. here) but not for natural population moves and I ...
2
votes
1answer
6k views

Why is national identity important? [closed]

In school curriculum in several countries, students learn national history in a very detailed manner, in addition to the collective world history. One reason for this is to promote the formation of ...
2
votes
1answer
262 views

Is it true the British heavily downplayed their defeat in Cartagena?

According to the wikipedia article the British lost the siege of Cartagena despite having a numerical advantage of 7-8 to 1. After the defeat King George II forbade anyone to talk about it in the ...
2
votes
2answers
148 views

What motivated revolutionary France to declare war on Britain in 1793?

France declared war on Britain in 1793 (War of First Coalition). What was its motivation for declaring war? It was already at war with many European powers at the moment, and it was not likely in a ...
2
votes
1answer
76 views

Did Italian irredentists ever lay claim to the Swiss Canton of Tessin?

The Italian irredentists wanted all Italian-speaking regions to be annexed by Italy, most specifically parts of Austria-Hungary, and this is why Italy joined the entente during the Great War, in order ...
2
votes
1answer
56 views

What was considered an epoch by the Phoenicians?

The Phoenicians used a lunisolar calendar similar to the Hebrew calendar. Do we have any idea about what Phoenicians considered as an epoch for their calendar, or at least about the nature of the said ...
2
votes
1answer
92 views

Why were the Malinta Tunnels built?

I understand that their function was for munitions storage, but according to Wikipedia, the Army Corps of Engineers just up and started building the Manlinta Tunnels in 1922. What was happening in ...
2
votes
1answer
151 views

A Principality within England

Ages ago I came across a brief mention on the Web of a principality existing briefly within England. It was made up of the County Cheshire and some surrounding territory. I think it was created by ...
2
votes
1answer
202 views

Was the use of imperial nicknames in ancient Rome meant as an insult?

A few Roman emperors are commonly known by nicknames. I'm thinking specifically of the Emperors Gaius (Caligula) and Antoninus (Caracalla.) These nicknames were never in official use, at least while ...
2
votes
1answer
142 views

Al Khazneh in Petra: is it fake?

The architecture is Greco-Roman, with all the usual attributes. But was it really built in antiquity? It was discovered in the early 19th Century (supposedly), but became a popular tourist destination ...
2
votes
1answer
165 views

What was the equivalent of “Shoulder Arms, Fire!” for archers in Ancient Rome?

Up until firearms were invented, armies used archers for similar purposes. A well-timed volley, when one can't see the sky for the flying arrows, can have a demoralizing effect on the enemy in ...
2
votes
1answer
80 views

What was the range of people's social lives like, before the technology for long distance communications developed?

We know a lot about some famous people from letters they have written and received. It seems that a lot more communication with people who were important in their lives was written instead of ...
2
votes
1answer
72 views

What alternatives to working was proposed in Paris during May, 1968? [closed]

What ideas for alternatives to work, or a society where people work to survive, did people have during May 1968 in Paris? How could that society function and how could people feed themselves? I've ...
2
votes
1answer
105 views

What pharaoh did Cambyses defeat in the invasion of Egypt?

According to currently accepted history, the Persian king, Cambyses conquered Egypt in 525 BC. According to Herodotus, the pharaoh of Egypt at the time was "Psammetichos", whom modern historians ...
2
votes
2answers
110 views

Elites in post-war Japan [closed]

How the Japanese political elite has been changed after WW2? I've read that the aristocracy was effectively removed from power, while middle ranking officials and bureaucracy have preserved their ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

Why did Uesugi Kenshin never marry? Was it common practice for Japanese Buddhists of the time?

It seems that the famed Sengoku-era lord Uesugi Kenshin never married anybody in his life because he was a devout Buddhist. This seems highly unusual, considering Japanese Buddhists at that time seem ...
2
votes
1answer
302 views

What did the Japanese believe about the USA capability of making/using additional atomic bombs?

Clearly the Japanese believed that if they did not surrender another atomic bomb would be used on them. However how soon did they believed this would happen? And how many atomic bombs did they ...
2
votes
1answer
189 views

How many illegitimate children did King Henry VIII have?

I am aware of Henry FitzRoy, his illegitimate son that he acknowledged whom he had with Bessie Blount. Are there any other confirmed illegitimate children?

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