0
votes
0answers
3 views

Does the reversal of the ribbon on a military medal (South Africa / UK; WWII) carry meaning or is it simply an error?

My father was showing me his father's WWII medals for service in the South African military. Having found images depicting the official order of wear I noticed that some had reversed ribbons. I ...
4
votes
2answers
200 views

Can the University of Bologna be considered the first university in the world?

There are usually two different opinions: the first group considers the University of Bolgona to be officially the first one, some others instead claim that there might have been other groups of ...
21
votes
6answers
8k views

Where did the Gaels originate?

The origin and spreading out of the Celtic peoples is a topic shrouded in mystery, at least to my mind. While the Germanic migrations occurred during the late Imperial Roman period and Early Middle ...
4
votes
1answer
71 views

Need help interpreting “silver” hallmark - 1706?

I'm looking for some assistance in interpreting the silver hallmark in the image below. EPNS tells us it's not real silver, could 1706 really be the true date with that in mind? What does the ...
14
votes
2answers
3k views

Is it true that US tracer rounds were red and VC green during Vietnam war?

Quote from American Marine diary about tracers during vietnam: 0200 hours - Heavier fire coming in. Never had seen green tracers used against us. In a way, kind of pretty to look at, red ...
3
votes
1answer
88 views

Layout of Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Shafts?

I'm investigating proposed alignments between pyramid* shafts and constellations for a video project, and for it, I need to know shaft angles and directions, the directions with respect to true North ...
-2
votes
2answers
62 views

Why didn't the ancient Egyptians conquer an empire? [on hold]

If we look for example to Romans and Greeks we will find that they had great empires, they invaded a lot of countries and established civilizations outside their countries. Why didn't ancient ...
-1
votes
0answers
23 views

When did Jews achieve total emancipation in Britain?

I have read something which says that despite the Relief Acts in 1846 and 1858 Jews did not obtain full emancipation until 1890. Even though this opened up all positions to British Jews except ...
2
votes
2answers
602 views

Stalin cultivated a “Friend of the Children” image: Why? Did other communist/socialist leaders do the same?

Part of Stalin's cult of personality was his promulgation of a "Friend of the children" image. What was the reason for this? What other communist or socialist leaders also used this tactic? (I ...
24
votes
2answers
577 views

Which war games did Napoleon practice with his generals?

I have read that Napoleon actively used to play strategy games with his generals in order to understand how they act in a range of situations. The generals also learned the same thing about each ...
-2
votes
0answers
34 views

What is the difference between SAM, ASM, AAM and SSM missiles? [on hold]

Aside from where it's launched from and where it's going, of course. I mean, they're all missiles. Why don't just use the same missile to attack surface and air? Perhaps, their 'ingredients'? Thanks. ...
3
votes
0answers
46 views

What was the reaction to English monarchs using the title “King of France”?

After the Hundred Years War (or "wars") the English had been wiped off France, but English monarchs kept using their official title "King of France". As I understand, this was to legalize their claims ...
5
votes
1answer
625 views

How did Churchill and Stalin intend to translate the percentages in the “Percentages agreement”?

In "percentages agreement", Stalin and Churchill allegedly divided Southeastern Europe to sphere of influences of the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. According to Churchill's account quoted by ...
3
votes
2answers
137 views

Are there any theories about what health problems would a man of the past suffer in the current age?

Thinking about the problems which the natives of the Americas suffered when they met the Europeans, I wondered how a man of the past could survive in the modern age. Problems could be caused by ...
0
votes
0answers
73 views

What is known about the censuses taken by Augustus? [on hold]

What is known of census' taken in Imperial Rome? Are there any remaining records of them? How were they conducted and for what purpose? Wikipedia refers to the Census of Quirinius, although it ...
1
vote
2answers
141 views

How did Napoleon I succeed in France despite his shortcomings in French?

TL;DR. My question: The following sources onfirm that despite Napoleon's industry and perseverance, he never refined his French to the level of a native fluent speaker. So how did he succeed in ...
-1
votes
3answers
95 views

What is the reason of Mongol Empire success conquering that huge territory?

I found out that Mongol Empire had around 100,000 soldiers on the field. Most of them were cavalries and they had great battle tactics. Isn't that figure however a bit low to conquer and control ...
4
votes
1answer
121 views

What is 'real socialism'?

I have been assigned a monograph about the countries of real socialism. While I understand the topic and have been successful at writing up the work, I am having difficulty in finding a definition for ...
-1
votes
1answer
86 views

How did Americans' hatred of taxes shape the country up through the Gilded Age? [closed]

It is clear that many Americans hated taxes and that it was one of the causes of the Revolutionary War. However, the effect of taxes shaping America after Independence up until the Gilded Age is not ...
15
votes
4answers
543 views

What would be accurate illustrations of vikings and viking culture?

Vikings didn't have horned helmets as is often depicted. Where can I find accurate representations how vikings and viking society looked?
1
vote
2answers
130 views

Why weren't Baden, Würtemberg and Bavaria independent states ever restored? [on hold]

The southern german states of Baden, Würtemberg and Bavaria were independent states until 1871. Their historical background is quite different from the northern Germany which was dominated by Prussia ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

Jewish Slave Owners in the United States

David Duke has a video on YouTube about Jewish participation in various slave trades in Western history. At the 7:40 mark he states: In the pre-Civil War United States 2% of white gentile ...
18
votes
5answers
3k views

Why did the Dutch, French & British acquire minor colonies in South America?

We know that South America was partitioned between Spain and Portugal in the early days of empire when Spain and Portugal were the major powers. Later, in the 19th century, when Spain and Portugal ...
12
votes
3answers
323 views

The Purpose of Mystery Object 40.9.11

In the summer of 1915, a wireless telegraph station in Sayville, Long Island owned by the German company Telefunken was caught sending covert commands to U-Boats patrolling the Atlantic Ocean. The ...
0
votes
0answers
55 views

Which gender had the words for social roles in ancient gaulish? [on hold]

I would like to know which gender had the words for social roles in ancient celtic languages. To give a very specific example, I would be very interested by knowing how to refer: to a female and to ...
2
votes
2answers
86 views

Was there a battle were Russians forces rallied around a religious icon to achieve victory?

I remember on my last visit to Moscow, there was an incredible art piece where a group of priests carrying orthodox icons are surrounded by soldiers with spears and swords. I remember the legend ...
-2
votes
1answer
104 views

What color were Roman military tunics and shields?

What color were Roman military tunics and shields? I am posting this question to answer it myself, as I think this might be useful information for others. In specific, I'll talk about the color of ...
2
votes
1answer
136 views

Is there a painting from before the colonization of the Americas depicting travelers from far away visiting European nobles?

Is there a painting from before the colonization of the Americas depicting European nobles being entertained or given gifts by travelers from far away places, such as sub-saharan Africa or India? I'm ...
6
votes
2answers
521 views

How did galleys battle?

Until the late 16th century, galleys were the main battleships. They were then started to be replaced by larger galleons, as the galleons could carry much bigger cannons with the developed technology. ...
-3
votes
0answers
65 views

Who are some preferably American “Great People” who were born to rich parents? [on hold]

I need to know the names of three Great Americans (Ie, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Ford, the Wright Brothers, etc) who were born to rich parents who lived between the 1800's to 1950's. ...
5
votes
2answers
246 views

How many soldiers did Ghengis Khan field?

I'm looking for the number of soldiers the Mongol Empire had at the time of Genghis Khan. What percentage of them were ethnically Mongolians?
14
votes
3answers
717 views

Why did the French nobility adopt Calvinism?

The Wikipedia article on the French Wars of Religion) says that the Calvinist form of Protestantism, in particular, spread into the nobility. Now, I'd like to know why is that, and not Lutheranism for ...
8
votes
1answer
117 views

How were Muslim Turks treated in Byzantine Empire?

While reading about the Palaiologan Renaissance on Wikipedia, I was intrigued to find that a mosque was rebuilt in Constantinople, which was destroyed during the fourth crusade(read about it here). I ...
7
votes
1answer
96 views

Who were the Deer Touchers?

About 20 years ago I read an article in a periodical (can't remember which periodical) about a tribe of natives (I believe they were North American) who had a tradition of touching live deer. They ...
9
votes
2answers
678 views

Did Mountbatten favour India in partition of India-Pakistan?

Christopher Beaumont's said that Mountbatten pressured Radcliffe to change the boundary in India's favour. See this BBC article: The documents repeatedly allege that Mountbatten put pressure on ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

What event best represents the long struggle for equality for African Americans? [on hold]

I'm thinking about writing a short book about the civil rights movement in the U.S. I want the first chapter of the book to recount some event (between when the first African slaves arrived in America ...
1
vote
2answers
90 views

Who was the highest ranking spy ever? [on hold]

I wonder who was the highest ranking government official working knowingly and clandestinely for a foreign government. Two nominations are possible: Traitors A citizen of country X working ...
2
votes
0answers
25 views

Presidents of the French Tribunate from 1799 to 1807

who were the presidents of the French Tribunate from 1799 to 1807? the French wiki only has an undated list of names (http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribunat): Pierre Daunou Jean-Nicolas Démeunier ...
9
votes
5answers
1k views

Why did the Soviet Union's economy grow fast in the 1950's-1960's?

Communist economic systems self-implode. Today it has been recognized that Communism is bad for economic progress. There is no dispute that Communism makes countries poor based on what has happened in ...
3
votes
1answer
132 views

Usage of German camoflage during World War II

Although most do not know this, Germans used camouflage during the war. The grey uniform was only ceremonial. However, they are pictured without the camo 99% of the time so I'd like to ask, during ...
17
votes
5answers
2k views

Why do so many national flags contain the color red?

I was doing some riddles with my daughter today and mentioned some nations. She had to 'calculate' how many of those nations' flags had the color red in them. As it happened, all of them did. In ...
19
votes
6answers
33k views

Why were Spain and Portugal neutral / not invaded in WWII?

Why was not Spain and Portugal involved in World War II with either side? Was not Franco sympathetic with the Axis powers given the help they offered during the civil war? Also, given their ...
13
votes
2answers
365 views

What was the motivation for the Gregorian Calendar?

The Gregorian Calendar eventually replaced the Roman calendar at some point, I know this was something to do with the days not being quite accurate so specific days (I think equinox and solstice) were ...
15
votes
2answers
1k views

Why did families in 6th century Mecca send their babies to be raised in the desert?

Biographies of Muhammad mentions that in his early childhood he was looked after by a wet-nurse Halimah, from a few days after his birth until he was 4. It seems customary for Meccan families to do ...
2
votes
0answers
56 views

Everyday Life in Vichy France [closed]

How did the war happening on either side affect life, until it finally rolled over them? What happened to cafes when coffee was in short supply? Would a cigarette butt on the sidewalk set off a little ...
10
votes
2answers
584 views

Can you identify the plane in the picture?

Can you help identify this U.S. Air force four engine prop, numbered 2753.
-1
votes
0answers
45 views

Historical reform that we can relate to today [closed]

My main question: Are there some reforms in the period 1500 - 1877, in America, that are (commonly) used as examples for major problems today, to extrapolate from the past and adapt their solutions? ...
17
votes
4answers
28k views

Does the number of legs in the air of a horse statue indicate how its rider died?

I have heard that the number of legs a horse has in the air in a statue indicates how the rider died. According to what I have understood: 2 legs in the air: rider died in battle 1 leg in the air: ...
2
votes
0answers
41 views

What is the status of Weber's protestant ethic thesis?

Max Weber in his famous book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism elaborates a thesis that relates the development of the capitalistic system is a result of the work ethic that emerged ...
23
votes
5answers
31k views

Why did Italy abandon its alliance with Germany in WW1 and join the Allied side?

Before WW1 Italy was part of an alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, yet it didn't join them when the war started and it even joined the Allied side later during the war. Why did Italy do this? ...

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