-2
votes
1answer
31 views

What are the modern names of the nations mentioned in Ystoria Mongalorum?

Nations that have been subjugated: Kytai, Naymani, Solangi, Kara Kytai siue nigri Kytai, Comania, Tumat, Voyrat, Caraniti Huyur, Soboal, Merkiti, Meniti, Baryhryur, Gosmit, Saraceni, Bisermini, ...
60
votes
10answers
12k views

Why bother attacking castles at all? Why not go around?

Castles were designed to hold people, weapons, and supplies to survive a siege. They were well-defended. Taking one could easily be a long, bloody struggle. Why attack at all? Most castles I've seen ...
1
vote
2answers
41 views

What was the purpose of tunnel fighting in a 17th century siege?

Since I watched the movie Alatriste, and wondered what was the usage of tunnel fighting in the 17th century, as can be seen in the Hulst siege scene. I am aware that in medieval times, tunnels (or ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Tamerlane and Operation Barbarossa

While going through Tamerlane's article on Wikipedia I found It is also said that when Gerasimov exhumed Timur's body, an additional inscription inside the casket was found reading, "Who ever ...
6
votes
5answers
876 views

What is the earliest reference to “space aliens”?

If we go back sufficiently far in human history we will most likely see that any descriptions of (supposed) "aliens" are described solely in religious terms. So in the distant past, any weird or ...
2
votes
1answer
35 views

Is there historical evidence that Emperor Ashoka converted to Buddhism?

As far as I know, the only evidence having claim over the fact about Ashoka's conversion to Buddhism is the Ashokavadana, a work of the Buddhists themselves. Nor is this fact verifiable by Ashoka's ...
5
votes
2answers
369 views

What was the context behind Felix Frankfurter's quote?

Some internet sites, including those of a more dubious and conspiratorial nature, have been posting this rather ominous quote: The real rulers in Washington are invisible, and exercise power from ...
-4
votes
2answers
88 views

Germany's “Economic Miracle” [on hold]

I heard, but cannot verify, that some economists call what Hitler did for Germany's economy an "economic miracle." This claims (my emphases): Hitler's Economic MiracleThe real reason for World ...
4
votes
4answers
99 views

historical name(s) for area between Syria and Mesopotamia?

Apologies if this is "really" a geographical question, but I suspect it must have been addressed by scholars of the past millenium of Middle Eastern history, not least because it is so central to a ...
2
votes
2answers
159 views

How could lower judges ignore the US Supreme Court?

[Source:] Despite the Supreme Court's decision, anti-miscegenation laws remained on the books in several states, although the decision had made them unenforceable. Local judges in Alabama continued ...
-4
votes
0answers
23 views

what is the century of light? [on hold]

I am responsible for making a presentation on the 18 th century in Europe. who can help me ? How can I make my presentation perfect and good ? we must speak of two main sides literary / art society ...
3
votes
1answer
96 views

How many electric light companies operated in New York in 1887?

ConEdison's History page says: By 1900, there were more than 30 companies generating and distributing electricity throughout the boroughs of New York City and in Westchester County. I'm ...
-2
votes
1answer
57 views

Why was China not linguistically united? [on hold]

The entirety of China is culturally and ethnically very similar to each other. The country also was united by a strong central government for much of its history, and did not spend any significant ...
4
votes
1answer
94 views

Can anyone identify this warship?

The picture is of a ship that my late father is believed to have served on, I can find no identification marks on the photograph, so even a type of vessel would be a great help, as I have no records ...
5
votes
5answers
3k views

What was the most important cause of the Second World War? [on hold]

What was the most important cause of the Second World War? Obviously there was the Treaty of Versailles which played a significant part; the War Guilt Clause, Reparations, Disarmament and territorial ...
11
votes
3answers
5k views

Is there a symbol associated with Loki from the Norse pantheon?

I've been looking around for any kind of sign, symbol, sigil, or such that can be said to have anything to do with the deity Loki, of the Norse pantheon. There doesn't seem to be anything as obvious ...
2
votes
1answer
85 views

How did pre-modern historians explain Qin's unification of China?

The Qin state unified China at the end of the Warring states period. After centuries of incessant warfare, in just under a decade Qin managed to conquer its opponents in quick succession. Modern ...
5
votes
4answers
1k views

Was Islam really responsible for the Italian Renaissance?

I recently heard a big claim from a Muslim, that the Italian Renaissance was largely caused by the positive Islamic influence on Europe via Spain or Al Andalus. I have my doubts about this claim, ...
37
votes
10answers
15k views

Why did Hitler not invade Sweden?

I was looking over a map of where the Nazis invaded and they never attacked Sweden. I was wondering why since it seems like a much better strategic move than invading Russia. Why might they have ...
2
votes
2answers
86 views

How powerful and influential was the “last caliph” Abdul Mejid?

It is unbelievable to see how a Caliph was so easily deposed by Turkish parliament which begs a question: How powerful and influential was Abdul Mejid II? Was he merely a titular symbolic puppet who ...
13
votes
4answers
998 views

Did Churchill and Roosevelt know about the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, or the following secret pacts between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union?

The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was the non-aggression pact between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany prior to, and during WWII. It seems that the actions of the two countries after the invasion of Poland ...
0
votes
5answers
361 views

Was there a plan “B” for the D-Day?

I could find only debates on the subject whether there was a plan "B" or not in case D-Day landing would have had actually failed. I wonder if there was an idea to make an alternative invasion plan. ...
-4
votes
0answers
34 views
2
votes
1answer
50 views

From Tiberius Gracchus to Julius Caesar

In the BBC series about six critical moments in Ancient Roman history, the earliest episode is about Tiberius Gracchus. They say that, although his reforms were not successful, they initiated a ...
7
votes
2answers
270 views

Soviet-German friendship propaganda posters (1939‒41)

Upon reading Putin’s New Nostalgia article by Timothy Snyder, I was specifically intrigued by one particular historical point he mentioned. Given the charged nature of current events, and Snyder’s ...
1
vote
0answers
57 views

Which Field Marshal famously used to fire Staff Officers if they could not write orders within two pages?

I recall a military anecdote which described a Field Marshal who considered Officers ineffectual if they were unable to write concisely. I believe the standard applied was that all plans or orders ...
2
votes
2answers
160 views

What is the historical relationship between Yule and Christmas?

What is the historical relationship between Yule and Christmas? Yule is in part a set of secular and religious observances of a festival, arising out of pagan Germanic cultures. Christmas is in part ...
4
votes
2answers
147 views
2
votes
1answer
90 views

Detailed dimensions of the Colosseum

I know that the Colosseum is about 189x156 meters, and 48 meters high, but I am having trouble finding any information on the dimensions of each of the 4 rows of seating. To be exact, where each row ...
7
votes
5answers
408 views

When did formal social dance fall out of favor in the US?

Up until about the 1950s, one can see instances of social dance (especially ballroom) dominating the social scene. This includes instances such as the tennis court scene with Humphrey Bogart and ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

Was Henry III of England the first fully “English” king? [on hold]

With his focus on Edward The Confessor, underscored by naming a his son Edward, did Henry III represent some sort of a political transition from from France to England? It also seems like there was ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

What were the insignia of the Western Roman Empire and what happened to them?

When Romulus Augustus was deposed by Odoacer, it is said that the "Imperial Insignia" was sent to Constantinople. I always wondered what kind of object(s) this was and if it survived in any form. If ...
-3
votes
0answers
37 views

Illuminati Triangle [on hold]

As everyone knows there is a pyramid on the back of the dollar bill with the top having an eye. I was told that this symbol was the "illuminati" symbol. What is the illuminati and why do they have ...
21
votes
2answers
2k views

Why could China keep most of the lands it conquered after 17th century but European powers could not?

If we look at the map of Ming dynasty, we see a much smaller China. Most of the northern and western part of today's China was conquered during Qing dynasty. In contrast, many European powers have ...
-6
votes
0answers
30 views

How hitler could have won the war [on hold]

Hitler did not want to conquer England.If you dont believe this look aT Dunkirk.He should have not listened to the drug addicted Goering.Instead he should have talked to the Emperor of japan and Japan ...
1
vote
1answer
75 views

Napoleon's Height [duplicate]

I have heard from some scholars that Napoleon was actually average sized. The only reason everyone thinks he is short is because of the difference in English inches and French inches. Is this true?
8
votes
5answers
465 views

What happened to all the notable Roman families?

What happened to the numerous (patrician) families of Rome? Like the Gens Julia for example. There are no ancestors today leading back to them like for example the famous Medici family from ...
3
votes
3answers
232 views

Extent of Empire of Lalitaditya Muktapida?

I recently came across this Wikipedia page of Lalitaditya Muktapida. The map in the page shows an enormous empire of him, stretching from China to Anatolia (as far as I can make out) in a relatively ...
10
votes
5answers
2k views

Rape perpetrated by American soldiers during WWII?

A while back I had a disturbing encounter with someone related to a Jewish survivor from the Auschwitz death camp. This survivor apparently claims that not only Red Army soldiers, but also G.I.'s ...
3
votes
1answer
64 views

When did the Ecclesiastical courts in England lose the authority to mete out punishments such as imprisonment and execution?

In 1401, the ecclesiastical courts in England were given the power to burn heretics. In modern times the ecclesiastical courts have no control over anyone who does not belong to the Church of England, ...
6
votes
3answers
606 views

What happened to those ethnic Greeks who converted to Islam during the Ottoman empire?

I got a little inspiration from a previous post on the History part: "Why were Albanians the only nation in the Balkans who converted to Islam during the Ottoman occupation?" Does anyone know ...
3
votes
1answer
82 views

How can we evaluate a country's historians for independence?

How can we identify historians from a country who are (willing to be) independent of the interests of the government of it? Whether or not a historian is really able to see and hear about their own ...
8
votes
1answer
176 views

When and why did smiling at strangers and in photos become customary in the United States?

In the US, in my experience, it's customary to smile when meeting a stranger. Even in an interaction as casual as passing someone in the street without a word, a smile is normal and expected. In ...
8
votes
2answers
181 views

Why today's Japan celebrates Western New Year but China still celebrates Chinese New Year?

Before Meiji Restoration, Japan used Chinese calendar and celebrated Chinese New Year just as China did. Nowadays, both Japan and China have adopted Western calendar. However, Japan celebrates ...
50
votes
5answers
2k views

How accurate or supported is Jared Diamond's “Guns, Germs, and Steel”?

Jared Diamond wrote a fascinating book that purports to explain, in a very broad way, the development of civilization. It has several explanations for the development of Eurasian civilization rather ...
24
votes
2answers
5k views

How did Europeans first acquire gunpowder?

I know that gunpowder was first invented in China around the 10th century, and it seems that gunpowder likely made its way to Europe via the "Silk Road." However, there doesn't seem to be a ton of ...
2
votes
1answer
61 views

Were the Barons who pushed King John to Sign the Magna Carta descended from the Normans? [on hold]

In reading "The Plantagenets" I noticed the names of many of the barons had a name like "so-and-so De so-and-so". It's the "De" that caught my attention as not sounding very British or Anglo. Instead ...
2
votes
1answer
95 views

Why did Abraham Lincoln choose Andrew Johnson as a vice presidential running mate?

Given the two were from different parties, I was curious as to why Lincoln would choose a man like Johnson from the opposing party when running for reelection. In addition, I'm curious as to why ...
-1
votes
0answers
36 views

Abolitionism in the north [on hold]

Why were there abolitionists arguing about whether advocating gradualism or Immediatism even after all the northern states were freed? Were they trying to emancipate slavery in the South? And what's ...
5
votes
1answer
86 views

Why did the Ming Dynasty Treasure Fleet Voyages end?

Have we come to know more reasons, on why the Treasure Fleet Voyages of the Ming Dynasty ceased, other than eunuch-to-civil power shift? Wikipedia says However, in 1433, the voyages ceased and ...

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