0
votes
0answers
7 views

Does the reversal of the ribbon on a military medal (South Africa / UK; WWII) carry meaning or is it simply an error?

My father was showing me his father's WWII medals for service in the South African military. Having found images depicting the official order of wear I noticed that some had reversed ribbons. I ...
-1
votes
0answers
23 views

When did Jews achieve total emancipation in Britain? [on hold]

I have read something which says that despite the Relief Acts in 1846 and 1858 Jews did not obtain full emancipation until 1890. Even though this opened up all positions to British Jews except ...
-2
votes
2answers
62 views

Why didn't the ancient Egyptians conquer an empire? [on hold]

If we look for example to Romans and Greeks we will find that they had great empires, they invaded a lot of countries and established civilizations outside their countries. Why didn't ancient ...
-2
votes
0answers
36 views

What is the difference between SAM, ASM, AAM and SSM missiles? [on hold]

Aside from where it's launched from and where it's going, of course. I mean, they're all missiles. Why don't just use the same missile to attack surface and air? Perhaps, their 'ingredients'? Thanks. ...
3
votes
0answers
47 views

What was the reaction to English monarchs using the title “King of France”?

After the Hundred Years War (or "wars") the English had been wiped off France, but English monarchs kept using their official title "King of France". As I understand, this was to legalize their claims ...
4
votes
1answer
73 views

Need help interpreting “silver” hallmark - 1706?

I'm looking for some assistance in interpreting the silver hallmark in the image below. EPNS tells us it's not real silver, could 1706 really be the true date with that in mind? What does the ...
0
votes
0answers
73 views

What is known about the censuses taken by Augustus? [on hold]

What is known of census' taken in Imperial Rome? Are there any remaining records of them? How were they conducted and for what purpose? Wikipedia refers to the Census of Quirinius, although it ...
1
vote
2answers
141 views

How did Napoleon I succeed in France despite his shortcomings in French?

TL;DR. My question: The following sources onfirm that despite Napoleon's industry and perseverance, he never refined his French to the level of a native fluent speaker. So how did he succeed in ...
0
votes
0answers
55 views

Which gender had the words for social roles in ancient gaulish? [on hold]

I would like to know which gender had the words for social roles in ancient celtic languages. To give a very specific example, I would be very interested by knowing how to refer: to a female and to ...
-2
votes
1answer
104 views

What color were Roman military tunics and shields?

What color were Roman military tunics and shields? I am posting this question to answer it myself, as I think this might be useful information for others. In specific, I'll talk about the color of ...
-3
votes
0answers
65 views

Who are some preferably American “Great People” who were born to rich parents? [on hold]

I need to know the names of three Great Americans (Ie, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Ford, the Wright Brothers, etc) who were born to rich parents who lived between the 1800's to 1950's. ...
1
vote
2answers
130 views

Why weren't Baden, Würtemberg and Bavaria independent states ever restored? [on hold]

The southern german states of Baden, Würtemberg and Bavaria were independent states until 1871. Their historical background is quite different from the northern Germany which was dominated by Prussia ...
-1
votes
3answers
96 views

What is the reason of Mongol Empire success conquering that huge territory?

I found out that Mongol Empire had around 100,000 soldiers on the field. Most of them were cavalries and they had great battle tactics. Isn't that figure however a bit low to conquer and control ...
6
votes
2answers
521 views

How did galleys battle?

Until the late 16th century, galleys were the main battleships. They were then started to be replaced by larger galleons, as the galleons could carry much bigger cannons with the developed technology. ...
2
votes
2answers
86 views

Was there a battle were Russians forces rallied around a religious icon to achieve victory?

I remember on my last visit to Moscow, there was an incredible art piece where a group of priests carrying orthodox icons are surrounded by soldiers with spears and swords. I remember the legend ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

What event best represents the long struggle for equality for African Americans? [on hold]

I'm thinking about writing a short book about the civil rights movement in the U.S. I want the first chapter of the book to recount some event (between when the first African slaves arrived in America ...
1
vote
2answers
90 views

Who was the highest ranking spy ever? [on hold]

I wonder who was the highest ranking government official working knowingly and clandestinely for a foreign government. Two nominations are possible: Traitors A citizen of country X working ...
2
votes
0answers
25 views

Presidents of the French Tribunate from 1799 to 1807

who were the presidents of the French Tribunate from 1799 to 1807? the French wiki only has an undated list of names (http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribunat): Pierre Daunou Jean-Nicolas Démeunier ...
7
votes
1answer
96 views

Who were the Deer Touchers?

About 20 years ago I read an article in a periodical (can't remember which periodical) about a tribe of natives (I believe they were North American) who had a tradition of touching live deer. They ...
3
votes
1answer
132 views

Usage of German camoflage during World War II

Although most do not know this, Germans used camouflage during the war. The grey uniform was only ceremonial. However, they are pictured without the camo 99% of the time so I'd like to ask, during ...
-1
votes
0answers
45 views

Historical reform that we can relate to today [closed]

My main question: Are there some reforms in the period 1500 - 1877, in America, that are (commonly) used as examples for major problems today, to extrapolate from the past and adapt their solutions? ...
2
votes
0answers
41 views

What is the status of Weber's protestant ethic thesis?

Max Weber in his famous book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism elaborates a thesis that relates the development of the capitalistic system is a result of the work ethic that emerged ...
2
votes
0answers
56 views

Everyday Life in Vichy France [closed]

How did the war happening on either side affect life, until it finally rolled over them? What happened to cafes when coffee was in short supply? Would a cigarette butt on the sidewalk set off a little ...
5
votes
2answers
246 views

How many soldiers did Ghengis Khan field?

I'm looking for the number of soldiers the Mongol Empire had at the time of Genghis Khan. What percentage of them were ethnically Mongolians?
8
votes
1answer
117 views

How were Muslim Turks treated in Byzantine Empire?

While reading about the Palaiologan Renaissance on Wikipedia, I was intrigued to find that a mosque was rebuilt in Constantinople, which was destroyed during the fourth crusade(read about it here). I ...
1
vote
1answer
88 views

Why did the jews leave Israel and spread out through the world? [closed]

When and what lead jews to leave Israel after the Roman conquest and spread out through out the world?
3
votes
0answers
30 views

Employment statistics in Germany since mid-19th century

What is the most reliable source of employment statistics in Germany? I am interested in the time period starting from mid-19th century all the way to present days.
6
votes
1answer
74 views

How did the Alien and Sedition acts pass?

The Alien and Sedition acts, passed in 1798, are said to have been an attempt by the Federalist Party to suppress opposition. In Chapter 74 Section 2, the law seems to put restrictions on freedom of ...
17
votes
5answers
2k views

Why do so many national flags contain the color red?

I was doing some riddles with my daughter today and mentioned some nations. She had to 'calculate' how many of those nations' flags had the color red in them. As it happened, all of them did. In ...
0
votes
0answers
39 views

Have the results from Computational Physics disprove any physics theory? [closed]

We are familiar with the instances when experimental results disproved physics theories, such as the Michelson-Morley experiment. What about computational physics results? To date, is there any ...
-1
votes
1answer
86 views

How did Americans' hatred of taxes shape the country up through the Gilded Age? [closed]

It is clear that many Americans hated taxes and that it was one of the causes of the Revolutionary War. However, the effect of taxes shaping America after Independence up until the Gilded Age is not ...
1
vote
1answer
81 views

Outdoors Survival Knowledge for Samurai?

Did any era's Samurai know Outdoors Survival Knowledge? If so, which eras, which country (or however Japan separated its land at that time), and how much did they know?
14
votes
3answers
719 views

Why did the French nobility adopt Calvinism?

The Wikipedia article on the French Wars of Religion) says that the Calvinist form of Protestantism, in particular, spread into the nobility. Now, I'd like to know why is that, and not Lutheranism for ...
6
votes
4answers
157 views

Did native Mexicans prefer Spanish rulers to the Aztecs?

In his letter to Charles V, Hernan Cortes states that "it was only necessary to threaten to return them [the natives] to their native masters in order to make them serve the Spaniards very willingly." ...
0
votes
2answers
58 views

Other than coffee and tobacco what major product became Cuba's source of wealth in the 18th century?

How did the Industrial Revolution affect the production of this commodity? What, if any, affect did the Great Depression have on the industry?
3
votes
1answer
147 views

How were snipers used on the western front during WW2?

When the topic of snipers in WWII comes up, it's almost always about Soviet snipers and the eastern front. What about the western front? I'm specifically interested in how or if the British, American, ...
2
votes
1answer
30 views

What distinguished the Republican Party of Liberia from the True Whig Party?

What was the difference between the two parties? Wikipedia says that the Republican Party was made up primarily of Americo-Liberians who had mixed African and European ancestry. I assume the TWP was ...
4
votes
3answers
122 views

Use of lead sheets in reconstruction of late medieval tower?

I guess it's more of an archaeology question, but this is the closest forum I could find. So, we stopped at Gardiki Castle, Corfu, Greece, built in the late Byzantine era in the 13th century, and ...
4
votes
0answers
66 views

Did Socrates earn money (get paid) for philosophy? [closed]

I have only read Platos Apology, so I was rather surprised when a recent comment said he "was paid". A quick look at Wikipedia find this In The Clouds Aristophanes portrays Socrates as ...
0
votes
0answers
69 views

What method did the Dravidian people of South India utilize to make fire? [closed]

I would like to know the method Dravidians used to make fire. Does any of the literature or poems written by them mention the method they adopted?
8
votes
1answer
2k views

Did Hongwu Emperor flay 5000 women, and why?

On Wikipedia, there is a snippet that reads: The Hongwu Emperor flayed many servants, officials and rebels.[5][6] In 1396 he ordered the flaying of 5000 women.[7] The problem is that the second ...
-1
votes
0answers
66 views

Did Alan Turing's colleague Peter Hilton brother die?

The recent film The Imitation Game detailed Alan Turing's successful efforts to crack Enigma, the German encoding used to encrypt radio messages. Eventually Turing cracks Enigma, and he and his ...
1
vote
0answers
26 views

Historical African Demographic and Agriculture Data

I'm looking for resources that give the the demographic breakdown of African nations for the time period 1880-1960 (so colonization), such as from censuses. Primarily, I need the european share of the ...
5
votes
1answer
110 views

How long did it take to build earth dikes with low-tech tools?

Let's say you're in charge of a group of laborers anywhere from the Iron Age to the Middle Ages. Your job is to build a dike made of earth, a couple of meters high and presumably about the same width ...
4
votes
1answer
57 views

On the electoral system of Roman centuriate assembly

The centuriate assembly (Comicia centuriata) was arguably the most important assembly of the Roman republic. It was in charge of electing consuls, praetors and censors, of voting laws, declaring war ...
4
votes
1answer
178 views

When was the concept of “art criticism” first seen?

Today being an art critic is a full time occupation for some individuals. When/where does the concept of "art criticism" first come into being? Clarify I am NOT looking for a random person sharing ...
4
votes
0answers
41 views

Conditions of Polish minority in Weimar Republic?

It's a well known fact that the border between Germany and the re-created Poland in 1918 was decided by the allies. It was drawn semi-arbitrairly following the places where the majority of people were ...
4
votes
1answer
131 views

What is / are the specific reason(s) for Vyacheslav Molotov's fall from grace with Joseph Stalin?

From the 1930's through World War 2, Vyacheslav Molotov seemed to be the face of the Soviet Union in most diplomatic circles. Sometime after the war he lost favor with Stalin. Some reports say to the ...
4
votes
0answers
68 views

How can the impact of moving the Brazilian capital be analyzed? [closed]

Around 50 years ago Brasília became the capital of Brazil. The distances between São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro - where the biggest part of the population live - from Brasília are big enough to have ...
7
votes
3answers
260 views

How was the current month and day disseminated to the townspeople of Medieval Europe?

How was the current month and day disseminated to the townspeople of the Medieval Europe? I'm quite sure that personal calendars weren't a thing back then... but I could be wrong... If they had a ...

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