12
votes
4answers
1k views

What did Richlieu mean by his “six lines” quote?

Cardinal Richelieu is frequently quoted as saying, If you give me six lines written by the hand of the most honest of men, I will find something in them which will hang him. What I've never seen ...
0
votes
1answer
91 views

Death by candle

Many sources state that candles have been heavily used for light and timekeeping starting as early as 3000 BCE. Until electric lighting took over starting in the 19th century, candles and oil lamps ...
0
votes
4answers
153 views

Why did Gen. Lee (Civil War) surrender to the U.S?

I am sure, from different sources, that his men were willing to fight to the death, even if they were surrounded. Also, if they were willing to fight in the first place, because the issue was so ...
3
votes
1answer
92 views

Are there any accounts of German junior enlisted soldiers surviving the siege of Stalingrad and subsequent captivity?

When the German Sixth Army was surrounded at Stalingrad, there were something like 330,000 soldiers. Perhaps 91,000 survived the siege to surrender two and half months later, and of these, about 5,000 ...
2
votes
2answers
926 views

What were the German “general” ranks in World War II?

The Anglo-American armies share ranks up to "full" (or four star) general. (The German army has ranks equivalent to those armies for non-general officers). The American army deviated from the English ...
3
votes
2answers
390 views

Where, exactly, was the “Sudetenland?”

In an early version of my earlier Skoda Works question, I placed the works in the "Sudetenland." A European protested that they were 250 kms. away from the Sudetes mountains, which he considered the ...
2
votes
1answer
110 views

Why did Bierut threaten to murder families of those who did not join him?

My knowledge is very small on this. Boleslaw Bierut was a Polish Communist leader who became the President of Poland after the Soviet takeover of the country, in the aftermath of WW2 as Wikipedia ...
4
votes
3answers
189 views

What treatment did Allied Jewish POWs get when captured by the Germans?

According to Wikipedia, there were about 500,000 American Jews serving in the US forces during World War II, and another 500,000 Jews served other Allied nations. Some of these servicemen would have ...
34
votes
6answers
10k views

Why was the Japanese Army's fatalities inflicted:suffered ratio so low in the Pacific theatre?

Leaving aside the naval battles of the Pacific, why did the Japanese army do so poorly against allied forces (specifically United states and Australian forces) when on the defensive. While logistics ...
1
vote
0answers
50 views

What is the origin of language? [on hold]

The use of language is one of the most conspicuous and diagnostic traits that distinguish Homo sapiens from other species. Unlike writing, spoken language leaves no trace.Can we get a direct method in ...
12
votes
2answers
1k views

How did the Germans get homes again after WWII?

After a large number of homes were destroyed in the war, how did the average German become a homeowner again? I know about the Marshall Plan, but this question does not refer to how the economy in ...
2
votes
1answer
266 views

How did the German royal families lose power so quickly in 1918? What happened to them afterwards?

Before 1918, Germany was a federal empire. According to this Wikipedia article, The German Empire consisted of 27 constituent territories, with most being ruled by royal families. This included ...
0
votes
0answers
47 views

How would American foreigners have been treated by Mexico shortly after the beginning of WWII?

I am curious to know what everyday life might have been like for a trio of American foreigners in the northern, near-border regions of Mexico during the early days of World War Two. Specifically, I am ...
2
votes
3answers
198 views

What was the rationale behind restrictions on Camera ownership in post-war Germany?

According to the accepted answer to this question: There are very few photographs from occupied Germany because it was illegal for >Germans to own cameras and similar regulations were enforced to ...
6
votes
1answer
141 views

Has there ever been a war between members of a personal union?

A personal union occurs when two otherwise independent states (each with their own territories, governments, etc.) come to share the same monarch. Has it ever come to pass that two member states of a ...
5
votes
1answer
128 views

Why did the British leave Kohima and Imphal “lightly” defended in 1944?

In 1942, the answer would have been, "because Britain didn't have enough troops." They were then weak "everywhere" along the line. But by early 1944, after two years of the Burma Campaign, Britain ...
3
votes
3answers
212 views

Did the Germans have enough bombers to conduct “strategic” bombing of the Soviet Union?

The Germans have been criticized for not using strategic bombing against Soviet factories, oil fields, etc. to suppress Soviet weapons production. On the other hand, it is hard to argue with the ...
-2
votes
4answers
4k views

Is there any evidence that the book of Isaiah was written before Cyrus?

The OT Prophet Isaiah lived in the 8th-century BC. Cyrus, the Emperor of Persia, lived well over one hundred years later: Cyrus (580-529 BC) was the first Achaemenid Emperor. Yet The Book of Isaiah in ...
2
votes
0answers
41 views

Federal courts under the Articles of Confederation

The ninth Article of Confederation establishes federal judicial jurisdiction in some cases, including "disputes and differences now subsisting or that hereafter may arise between two or more States ...
3
votes
0answers
79 views

What was everyday life in Mexico like during the early days of WWII? [on hold]

I am curious to know what everyday life might have been like for a trio of American foreigners in the northern, near-border regions of Mexico during the early days of World War Two. Specifically, I am ...
3
votes
1answer
129 views

Was von Manstein's Lack of Success at Leningrad (and later Stalingrad) due to the failure of German military intelligence?

Arguably the high water mark of the German eastern front campaign was the capture of Sevastopol by General Erich von Manstein, who was arguably Germany's best general. After this victory, he and his ...
4
votes
0answers
43 views

Who fixed new year's day as 25th March in 1155 CE

I have read that New year's day was fixed at Lady Day 25th March from 1155 until the reform in 1752, but I can't find out who fixed it and why, can anybody help? Responding to the comment by C.G. ...
0
votes
2answers
102 views

Why wasn't Russia in the Paris Peace Talks?

After the loss of World War One by Germany and Austria, the Allies convened to discuss in the Paris Peace Talks. It is understandable that Germany and Austria were not allowed to participate in these ...
9
votes
5answers
1k views

Have there been any efforts by the countries of Europe to restore their monarchies?

Have there been any effort, polls, referendum in Europe (especially Eastern ex-communist countries) to restore deposed monarchies, like in Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, etc.? Most Monarchies were deposed ...
13
votes
3answers
822 views

What changed Japanese attitude to POWs in inter-war period?

I have read this excellent answer in which @Semaphore provides sources confirming that German defenders of Tsingtao were treated very well during World War I, which even lead to some tradition in ...
5
votes
1answer
52 views

When was the Passover Seder ritual formalized?

When were the Passover Seder customs in their present form formalized? As a terminus post quem I think we can surely take 70 CE when the Second Temple was destroyed since parts of the Seder ...
3
votes
0answers
39 views

Could any Habsburg kings of Hungary speak Hungarian?

From 1526 to 1918, Hungary was ruled by the Habsburgs. Could any of the Habsburg kings speak Hungarian, and if so, to what degree? I know that Sissi, the consort of Franz Joseph I, was particularly ...
3
votes
1answer
218 views

What motivated revolutionary France to declare war on Britain in 1793?

France declared war on Britain in 1793 (War of First Coalition). What was its motivation for declaring war? It was already at war with many European powers at the moment, and it was not likely in a ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Why did the Allied Forces choose Normandy as their geographic point of invasion? [on hold]

It seems that the fact that Normandy lies close to the United Kingdom must have played a role. However, parts of the Netherlands and Belgium are (almost) just as close, or even closer. So why not ...
3
votes
1answer
88 views

How can Germany be blamed for World War 1? [duplicate]

I am going to be participating in a debate about who started world war one and I have been assigned the role of accusing Germany. I do know that Germany was allied with the Austria-Hungarian empire, ...
-3
votes
0answers
48 views

How did the public react immediately after the passing of the Act of Supremacy in 1534? [on hold]

Henry VIII enacted the Act of Supremacy in 1534, thereby making the monarch the head of the newly established Church of England. In this new church, who were the priests? Did all of the priests of ...
-1
votes
1answer
76 views

Did Abraham Lincoln kill the man who murdered his mother? [on hold]

I'm watching a dramatized (re-enacted) biography of Abraham Lincoln and it shows him as having shot a man in the eye, shortly after the death of Lincoln's father. The man apparently had something to ...
0
votes
1answer
117 views

What kinds of documents were forged in the middle ages and how common was forgery?

For example I was reading about the Privilegium Maius, and was wondering what other instances of document forging were there in the middle ages ?
0
votes
0answers
36 views
21
votes
3answers
3k views

In WWII, what were the major differences in tank combat on the eastern and western fronts?

Nearly every nation deployed tanks in World War II. What are some differences in tactics between the eastern front in Russia and Eastern Europe, and the western front in France, the Low Countries, and ...
2
votes
1answer
128 views

What percentage of modern day Turks are of Bulgarian/Circassian/Greek/Serbian descent?

I asked a question before about Greek Muslims and what happened to them, I wonder also what percentage of modern day 'Turks', especially the light skinned ones in western Turkey, are of Balkan ...
1
vote
2answers
139 views

How did the Nazis justify the differences in the way they treated Jews v. POWs? [on hold]

I was reading an autobiographical account of an Army Air Corps POW. He was on a train that made a stop at Dachau to unhook several box cars containing Jews. Although he and his fellow POWs feared for ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Paying for something in Revolutionary Times

If someone were paying a bill or for a debt in 1790, did they pay with cash or a note of some sort?
2
votes
1answer
80 views

“Black Bull” pubs in Northumberland

What's the connection between the pub name "The Black Bull" and Northumberland? It seems like every other town here has one with the name!
2
votes
1answer
59 views

In which modern-day location did the historical battles of Bagrevand happen?

Wikipedia names at least two "battles of Bagrevand", In 371 between Persia and allied Roman-Armenian forces In 775 between the Abbasid Caliphate and rebelling Armenian princes both occuring in the ...
2
votes
2answers
463 views

What would the style of wanted posters be in 1500's

In Spain, what would be the style of wanted poster (for pirates)? Would it be like the Wild West type of a more modern poster.
0
votes
0answers
103 views

The Code of Corsairs of Mediterranean of the Middle Ages

How was the code and operating rules of the corsairs of the Mediterranean used, such as by Barbary Corsairs or Knights of the Order, during Middle Ages? There are references to agreements in the ...
5
votes
1answer
179 views

A zoo during the rule of Omayyad or Abbasid dynasty?

I recall that when I was in high school that I read a text -which sounds more like a legend- about an Arabic Sultan/Caliph who on a trip trough his empire passed by an injured (wild) animal (don't ...
8
votes
0answers
114 views

Why did Switzerland not grant votes to women until 1971?

I was shocked to learn yesterday that Switzerland didn't grant votes to women until 1971. Other European foot-draggers like France granted this right at the end of the second world war, making ...
1
vote
0answers
46 views

Theoretical approaches to History

Are there theories of approaches to history, or styles of history, insofar as the subject is taught at schools and universities? For example, E. P. Thompson seems to favour a Marxist interpretation ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Why did nationalism arise in Qing dynasty China? [on hold]

In 1644, when the Manchu people conquered China and formed the Qing dynasty, why did nationalism arise?
2
votes
1answer
63 views

What do the four castles on the flag of Ibiza represent?

The flag of Ibiza consists of four horizontal, red stripes on a yellow background. Each corner of the flag contains a seven-tower castle above a wave. What is the significance of the four castles? ...
4
votes
1answer
169 views

Why did England and Portugal cheap out on the Battle of Aljubarrota?

One of the most important and famous battles in the Iberian Peninsula took place in Aljubarrota. There were two main parties: Castille (With Aragonian, French and Italian support) Portugal (With ...
4
votes
1answer
102 views

How did the supplies shipped in winter over the “Road of Life” to Leningrad compare to those at other times of the year?

A key factor in the survival of Leningrad during its 900 day siege was the "Road of Life" built across a frozen Lake Ladoga during the winter months of 1941, 1942, and 1943, and lasting nearly half a ...

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