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15

Saladin was an unusual man who tried to win the "hearts and minds" of people he conquered. When he occupied Jerusalem, he ordered his men NOT to kill and plunder (in contrast even to the crusaders). When he occupied Cairo, Egypt, he built hospitals and universities for the city, even though he had to take harsh measures against the leaders of his former ...


12

Can we think of any reason why a major American Holywood motion picture would wish to distance it's hero from Islam? Most of his portrayal in 'literature' is from Walter Scott and the Victorians which tells you a lot more about their attitudes to themselves and what they saw as important values than it does about an actual medieval Islamic ruler


10

When it comes to western Europe, medieval Latin would be closer to an "official" language, especially for international affairs. The Roman Catholic Church's power and influence at the time was unparalleled and several major events of the era started with a Papal Bull. Here's a short list of Papal Bulls that were political in nature and were addressed, ...


10

Actually, Richard had acquired that name before he went on the Crusades. Richard and two of his brothers rose up in rebellion against their father, Henry II. They went to France to obtain the support of Louis VII, and it was Louis who actually knighted Richard. This established his initial ties to the French. When the brothers set out to attack their ...


8

How leprosy was considered in the Middle-Ages is an interesting story, because it evolved quite rapidly at the end of the 12th century, but differently depending on the place, and Baldwin IV was used as example. If you read French, read this article from Mark Gregory Pegg (it is a translation; I could not find the English original online). As a rough ...


8

They were ALL French. The House of Plantagenet (especially early on), in fact ALL of the Angevins, are French. They all spoke French (or a dialect thereof) as a FIRST language. Richard himself didn't speak English.


6

Saints Days, in particular, the local saint's day Shrove Tuesday Lent Easter Christmas was less important. In any area of importance four quarterly Saint's days would be identified with local days when legal actions occurred and markets occurred in the local large city. As such courts were either rotating, or held on feudal bases, it is usual for ...


6

Well, depends on where in the 12th century... some Indian and East Asian fencing weapons were meant to be deployed as a pair. I am assuming you mean medeval Europe. The earliest tome on swordsmanship is an untitled work known simply as I.33, and dates to 1300. It concerns itself only with buckler and longsword, which were in fashion at the time. Later into ...


6

All about the money. As merchants and trade became important you needed lawyers, to learn law you had to go and find a teacher. The teachers hung around in towns that had important trade links (Paris, N. Italy, Oxford) and the students turned up looking for the teachers. Gradually instead of hanging around in bars and seedy rooming houses the students and ...


5

The original is lost, so we don't know. There were copies made in Latin and Old French which are available online... apparently, many copies were made upon its proclamation, in various languages, each intended for a particular audience. Here's a free ebook courtesy of the Google Books scanning project that goes into the difficulties in identifying the ...


4

As you have noticed, buttons did not become popular as fasteners until around 1300. This is because before then clothing tended to consist of cloaks, robes, tunics and other loosely fitting garments that were easily secured with a pin (brooch or fibula). The Romans, Greeks and Levantines did wear buttons, but mostly as a sewn-on decoration, not as a ...


4

In general, dating was complicated, and different conventions existed simultaneously in England at that time. For the specific example of William the Conqueror's coronation, we have different sources within the following decades implying that it was in 1066 or 1067, anno Domini. The precision sought in the question did not exist, at least in the same form ...


4

It definitely wouldn't be English. In 1100, Old English was the language of the conquered Anglo-Saxon slaves (serfs). The Language of the conquerors of 1066 was Norman French or Anglo Norman. I'd put money on Latin. Anglo-Norman was never the main administrative language of England: Latin was the major language of record in legal and other official ...


3

The original Charter of Liberties was probably written in Latin. I found an online source for the Latin text at archive.org. (The source is Select charters and other illustrations of English constitutional history (1913)) It looks like most of the English versions you see online are from a translation done in 1915 by Albert Beebe White and Wallce Notestein ...


2

According to wikipedia, Anglo-Norman French (the dialect of French spoken by the Norman conquerors) was used for that purpose in England in the 13th century. Before that it was typically Latin, and afterwards English. (BTW: langues d'oïl basically means a dialect of French where oui is used to mean "yes". Anglon-Norman French was in fact one of those). ...


2

Assuming this truly did happen, there are a couple of reasons that might explain why. First of all, Saladin was Muslim, and one of the of the main principles of Islam is that Muslims should help those in need. Secondly, Saladin could use this as an opportunity to send men into Richard's camp and report back on the condition and size of Richard's army, ...


1

If we're talking about strictly catholic holidays, a good example that became popular across medieval Europe is the Feast of Corpus Christi, which started in Germany in the middle of 13th century. Soon it has spread both in Western and Eastern Europe, after pope Urban IV decision to make it official for all Latin Rite countries. In different areas of ...



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