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21

The historical answer is pretty much the same as the answer that you got on RPG - it depends on the type and construction of the pack. These ranged from simple cloth bags designed to be worn on the back, such as this one from one of the panels at the church of St.Wolfgang in South Tirol, Austria... ...to full on back boards and baskets made from wood and ...


20

I wouldn't characterize post-Magna Carta England as having a weak central government. Compared to the Holy Roman Empire it had a very efficient central government, in which the parliament played an important role alongeside the king. The early English Parliament already had a House of Commons. Hence not only the nobility was given rights but the common ...


13

Wikipedia provides an excellent answer on the Descendants of Genghis Khan. Some of the main points: Another important consideration is that Genghis's descendants intermarried frequently. For instance, the Jochids took wives from the Ilkhan dynasty of Persia, whose progenitor was Hulagu Khan. As a consequence, it is likely that many Jochids had ...


11

In addition to what you list, the organizational structure, bookkeeping of the monarchs, and relative literacy levels (albeit not high levels absolutely) helped enable a democratic system to emerge. Townhalls and church organizations allowed for some census and accountability to emerge. The later monarchs kept relatively accurate and complete tax records ...


10

I am sorry this is the only thing I could find. because the royal court was constantly moving, Frederik's library was dispersed in many different places; the part that he carried with him, so presumably the dearest one, was seized by his enemies, and thus likely divided as loot between different factions; parts were left in his different residencies; of ...


9

These guys in Nepal carry loads up to about 85kg per porter. The "backpacks" are actually wooden frames for weaved baskets, held together with ropes. This technology was already widely available much before medieval times. Any specific piece of luggage, then as now, had its own breaking point, but since this is way before standardized production in high ...


8

The vast majority of Genghis Khan's Mongols either were driven back to Mongolia or were absorbed into the general population of China. Some modern-day Chinese do retain their Mongol heritage as evidenced in the following linguistic map of Mongol Languages: Some of the Mongol populations include: Bonan, Mongour, Dongxiang, Yugur, Sogwo Arig, Sichuan ...


8

Japan did have naval forces at the time, and they probably fought the Mongolians a few times. The samurai Takezaki Suenaga, a gokenin from Higo in central Kyūshū, was a veteran of both wars. To showcase his valour in battle (to request rewards from the government), Takezaki commissioned the Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba, an illustrated account of the Mongol ...


7

This is a difficult question to answer because towns were of different sizes and the size of a guild depended on what kind of guild it was. For example, an association of bakers would have a lot more members than a guild of glovers. Florence had a population of about 20,000 people in 1100 A.D.. If we assume 1 baker per hundred people, that would be 200 men. ...


7

In the case of Conway (and most other places on borders) - it's more a castle than a town. There is no point in having a well fortified castle, if around it you have an undefended town to give your attackers a base to live in while they attack you. The walled part of the city is really just the first line of castle defence for a siege. Conway s part of ...


6

Saints Days, in particular, the local saint's day Shrove Tuesday Lent Easter Christmas was less important. In any area of importance four quarterly Saint's days would be identified with local days when legal actions occurred and markets occurred in the local large city. As such courts were either rotating, or held on feudal bases, it is usual for ...


6

In addition to the points already made, I would say that religion might have played a major role in how England turned out. The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution, both of which severely damaged the power of the monarch (the former completely destroying it for a while) were partly because of religion. Structures like the English Parliament were ...


5

I think that your answer is Angel and Royal Hotel. From the history fact sheet: Widely regarded and fondly known as the oldest surviving English Inn, the main façade of the building that stands today was built approximately 600 years ago. The site then, however, had already been an Inn for 200 years, and was built as a hostel for the chivalrous ...


4

There was a medieval saying, "Stadluft macht Frei." (City air makes one free.) One important aspect of England (and Greece and Rome before it) was the relative urbanization of its time. The most "progressive" and democratic elements of society tend to concentrate in cities, whereas the most conservative and pro monarchic influences are generally found in ...


4

Well, there are two problems - the first is that we don't know where Abaskun actually is. It was purported to be in the area of the mouth of the Gorgan River, which brings us to another issue - there are numerous sandbars in the region, which come and go with the weather over a span of years. The "island" may have been a vegetated sandbar (also known as a ...


3

Given that they had canvas and leather, I don't think there were any technological caps on the carry weight of a backpack. Better to look at what a human can carry comfortably for a prolonged time, which seems to be 20-30% body weight if you browse a hikers' forum. That's with a modern backpack, of course. I had a look and couldn't find whether backpacks ...


3

It's a simple (or not) optimization problem. Is the cost of the wall to protect the surrounding farms + cost of defending that wall (marginal cost compared to just the wall around the city) more or less than the cost of losing and rebuilding the farms (land improvements, buildings, stocks that can't be moved to the city and possibly farmers)? Judging by ...


3

From the Wikipedia article on Erik V: As an adult ruler, Eric tried to enforce his power over the church and nobility. In the 1270s, Eric Glipping attacked Småland. His conflict with the church was brought to a satisfying result, with the help of the pope. By 1282 he had so offended the nobles throughout Denmark that he was forced to accept a ...


2

It wasn't just "weakening of central government", but more specifically, weakening of the King/Queen, giving Parliament more power. The Magna Carta was part of that. Another notable event was the Glorious Revolution in 1688 when Parliament kicked the (Catholic) King James II out and replaced him with the Dutch. This is another example of Parliament (i.e. ...


2

City walls were for more than defense from attackers. Walls would help a city control immigration and trade, keeping out undesirables would be vital to a city remaining healthy especially preventing epidemics that could devastate a city. Walls Can also help with fighting crime to a degree by making entry/escape more challenging for criminals.


2

To answer your first question, yes attacks were frequent. This is what prompted many of the earliest 'settlements' to build a surrounding and protective wall in the first place, to stop constant raids from stronger 'warrior' nomadic tribes killing, enslaving people and stealing food. To answer your second question, the farmers and dry grain/food supplies ...


1

The document you link to provides the answer: There is a belief among Hijras that Khwaja Gharib Nawaz blessed Hijras, and once even made a Hijra pregnant. So they view Khwaja Gharib Nawaz as one (of several) "patron saints". "Khwaja" does not mean Eunuch. The term "Khawaja Sira" or "Khwaja Saara" does seem to be used to mean Hijras, but that is a compound ...


1

If we're talking about strictly catholic holidays, a good example that became popular across medieval Europe is the Feast of Corpus Christi, which started in Germany in the middle of 13th century. Soon it has spread both in Western and Eastern Europe, after pope Urban IV decision to make it official for all Latin Rite countries. In different areas of ...


1

I can't find exactly where the port of Abaskun was, but it is said to be near modern Gorgun, which is near the southeast corner of the Caspian Sea. All I see on Google Maps in that area is a couple of barrier islands (one of which technically you could claim is a peninsula). So most likely it would have been one of those. The larger one paralleling the ...


1

Genghis Khan's empire had at least four main parts: (modern) Russia, the Middle East (mainlhy Persia), Central Asia (Kazakhstan), and China-Mongolia. The soldiers who occupied the first three parts (mostly) intermarried with local women. In China-Mongolia (under Kublai Khan), many Mongolians intermarried with Chinese. Only a few Mongolians (between modern ...



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