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19

Officially the Knights were disbanded in the early 14th century, beginning in France with King Philip IV prosecuting them for multiple reasons (the Templars had lost standing after the Third Crusade, public mistrust, and the King owed money to the order), with other countries to follow. Pope Clement V disbanded the Order in 1312.


11

While Kutná Hora was producing silver, I don't think that this commodity or any other commodity (and surely not one stolen from a colony – colonies didn't really exist) was the main driver behind the glory of the Golden Era – although the silver was obviously needed for our hard currency, the Prague Groschen (picture below). The true reasons were ...


10

There were two main issues. The first was that the SWEDISH age of majority was 16. Queen Christina, daughter of Gustav Adolfus, was offered the crown at age 16, but by her own request, her coronation was delayed until she was nearly 18 (so she could finish her education). This was, of course, in opposition to the Norwegian statutes, which had the king's age ...


9

Depending on your definition of corporation, you could claim that Venice and other merchant cities of Italy were akin to corporations. Guilds could well be said to have been pseudo corporations and the Templar orders a pseudo-bank. Corporations allow for a united front against competition, taxes, and a sharing of profits. The Merchant Adventurers of ...


8

The earliest instance of a "corporation" as we recognize them today has to be the Dutch East India Company which was established in 1602. The Dutch East India Company was the first to issue shares that were tradeable on a stock exchange in its company in part to raise capital for its operations. At the time of its founding similar trading companies focused ...


7

Inflation has been defined as "too much money chasing too few goods," or in this case, "too few people." The supply of money, M, was fixed by the number of coins in circulation, which in turn was limited by the amount of available precious metals. When one third of the population, P, died off suddenly, the former relation of M to P became M/(2/3 P), ...


7

It was an internal fight in Sienna, Karl IV supported the party of twelve (Dodicini), probably seeking to extend his influence in the city. According to the German Wikipedia article on the topic, the Dodicini originally came to power with the help of the Salimbeni family and were favored by Karl IV. They didn't stay long and were replaced by a new council ...


6

Only one person can be involved in a personal union (hence the name). The trouble with being in a personal union – that is, sharing your monarch with a different country – is that your singular monarch might make choices that serve the other country's interests at the expense of your own. Mary held the Hungarian crown after her father's death – her sister ...


6

At Agincourt (1415) the English reportedly had 1,500 men-at-arms (aka: Knights) and 7,000 longbowmen. That would be a ratio of nearly 5 longbowmen per knight. The French side has a lot of conflicting estimates of size, but by all accounts was very heavily weighted toward men-at-arms. Estimates generally run north of 10,000, with only about 5,000 archers and ...


5

Ordinary soldiers did not wear emblems or colors. Units had pennants or flags. Knights might have an emblem, but that would normally be the house of the knight, not anyone else. Here is a picture illustrating a battle from the 100 Years War. As you can see they use flags and pennants:


5

The word "corporation" originates from Ancient Rome. Ancient Rome had special laws concerning the creation of corporations. Under the republic the creation of corporations was free, but starting from the reign of Augustus, only the Senate could approve the creation of new corporations. A Roman corporation was unlike the modern ones. It was more like a ...


4

The equipment for a knight was very expensive to create and maintain, it was therefore reserved for the rich, the nobility. Those were of course also the main group of people who could afford horses trained for riding as warhorses (which is quite different training from general riding and draft horses), so my guess is it would be unlikely to see a knight on ...


4

Caveat You said, "it could only improve the life quality of everyone since more land was available per person." - that would only be true if the two classes benefitted equally from the land. That is an assumption that will lead you very far astray. @Stefan has provided an extended example. Essentially however, if the benefit of land was skewed 90% ...


4

Jadwiga was better choice for Polish nobility, as they could have much stronger influence on her, without having to deal with Hungarians. Politic priorities of Poland and Hungary were different - the main problem of Poland those times were Teutonic Knights at the northern border. Hungarians had simply no interest in that matter. This way if Mary became ...


3

Englishmen, as well as their Gascon allies wore the red St George's cross stitched over; front and back so as to distinguish each other. Anyone found 'posing' with one who wasn't one of them scored a death sentence. It was an ordinance given by Richard II that every member of the army, lord and archer must wear it over their armour/clothing. Sources: ...


3

The following quotes, from English Medieval Knight 1400-1500 By Christopher Gravett on Google Books, states that retained Men-At-Arms would have worn their lords colours. Great lords employed knights and men-at-arms in private retinues, indeed sometimes so many that they formed private armies. Under this system of ‘livery and maintenance’, the ...


2

Perhaps Hungarian intersts surpassed Polish interest. At the time Hungary had a larger population than Poland, and the Hungarian royal inland revenues were higher than the Polish royal inland revenues.


2

Just looking over that wikipedia link, I'm seeing a lot of references to British monarchal eras and Highland fashion. So it could be that this was an item primarily prevalent in England and Scottland. England is not exactly famous for its sunny climate, and average temperatures there even in the summer appear to be a few degrees cooler than in Poland (where ...


2

My answer is only hinted at the following piece. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_I_of_Bohemia But there is a key line that says that Bohemia escaped the Black Plague that affected much of the rest of Europe. That would be sufficient to attract "flight capital" from the rest of Europe seeking a "safe haven" from afflicted areas. Bohemia appears to be ...


2

Chainmaille development and construction was surprisingly consistent from the 1st century CE onwards. You are correct in your assumption that almost all extant maille finds are riveted, but there are examples that show butted maille where the wire is simply closed together. In terms of construction, there are 4 types: riveted, welded, stamped, or butted. ...


2

Armor Essentials The essentials of the transition from twelfth-century mail harness to the fully developed plate armor of the fifteenth century man-at-arms can be summarized as follows: Articulations: Iron plate or hardened leather defenses for the elbows, knees, and shins first appeared in the mid-thirteenth century, and during the following hundred and ...


1

The Karaim and Tatar communities in the vicinity of Trakai date from the time of Vytautas. The Karaim spoke a similar language to the Tatars, but they weren’t Muslims, instead they professed a heterodox version of Judaism. These people may have worked as castle guards, and they seem to have regarded Vytautas as their patron and protector. There are a ...


1

Men at arms varied a lot in wealth and status. My knowledge is based on England and the hundred years war area, but you should find many universal similarities. In the early 1300s about 20-30% were knights, though by the early 1400s this was down to around 10%. Knights received 2 shillings a day as pay while common men at arms got half. You might add that ...


1

The best answer to the question that I have been able to come up myself so far points to silver mining e.g. in Kutná Hora, another UNESCO World Heritage property in the Czech Republic, from the the 13th and 14th centuries ("Kutná Hora is therefore rightly considered to be the treasure-house of the land whose wealth gave strength to the expansion of the ...


1

This is a very simplified example but hopefully it will help: Assume that there are 10 nobles and 100 workers. Each noble has 10 fields and uses at least 1 worker per field. Nobles have financial commitments and a standard of living which they wish to maintain. They pay the workers 1 pound a week to work on the fields and each field is equally ...


1

The Church adapted it from Roman law: "Christianity at its very beginning, found the concept of the corporation well developed under Roman law and widely and variously organized in Roman society. It was a concept that the early Christians soon adapted to their organization and, as a means of protection in the periods of persecution. Whether we attach to the ...


1

One of the books piled up at some of the bookstore chains is titled 'The Knights Templar'. A point made in the book is that between the formation of the Knights and their dissolution there was a cultural shift in Europe toward a more secular outlook. The collapse of the western Roman empire was both natural and human disaster, natural in that there ...



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