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18

I can go into further details if requested, but "TL;DR" answer is: After Luther agitated that "Jews didn't convert to Christianity because Catholics treated them badly, and would convert if you treat them better", Jews still didn't show any great willingness to convert. Here's one supporting quote (context was Luther's refusal to intercede on Jews's ...


15

That Poland avoided internal wars of religion can indeed be attributed to the religious tolerance of the state at this time, a tolerance that stretches back a long time. And this has to do with it's position where many of it's neighbouring countries were not Catholic. To the east the Kievan Rus adopted Orthodoxy, and further north the areas now known as ...


13

Opposition to the monarchy was indeed a major factor. Many French nobles, a majority of whom adopted Calvinist doctrine, sought to regain and extend privileges lost to the monarchy. - Nexon, Daniel H. The Struggle for Power in Early Modern Europe: Religious Conflict, Dynastic Empires, and International Change. Princeton University Press, 2009. ...


11

It is a widely used epitaph of the time for beloved wives (see here and here), and seems to refer to Luke 10:38-42: (New International Version (NIV)) At the Home of Martha and Mary 38 As Jesus and his disciples were on their way, he came to a village where a woman named Martha opened her home to him. 39 She had a sister called Mary, who sat ...


10

They didn't try because it wasn't politically relevant to them (i.e. The Emperor wasn't interested). Chinese dynasties preferred a tributary network instead of European or Pan-Arabic style colonisation. This reasoning worked well enough considering the key motivation for Europeans traders to sail beyond Europe was to bypass Arabic tariffs on the Silk Road ...


10

Here's what evidence they had: The word "Croatan" carved into a post of the fort The word "Cro" carved into a nearby tree All the houses and fortifications had been dismantled (They weren't destroyed) They didn't carve a Maltese Cross into any tree (John white instructed them to do so, if they were forced to move) Because there was no cross, John White ...


10

According to Ivan Gobry's Martin Luther, Luther thought that Sin is undefeatable, for lust will inexorably take residencde in each of us, therefore, to condemn oneself to celibacy, intending to please God, is to engage in self-deception and hypocrisy. Gobry also says that Luther believed the requirement that priests and monks stay celibate to be an ...


9

To quote Wikipedia's History of Flanders: The County of Flanders was created in the year 862 as a feudal fief in West Francia. After a period of growing power within France, it was divided when its western districts fell under French rule in the late 12th century, with the remaining parts of Flanders came under the rule of the counts of neighbouring ...


8

MOST of Flanders is contained in present-day Belgium. (Small pieces are held by France and the Netherlands. Flanders became part of the Hapsburg Empire when Maximilian of Austria married Marie of Burgundy. They actually lost Burgundy to France, but managed to keep most of Flanders and Marie's other possessions (e.g., today's Netherlands). They had a son, ...


8

Hideyoshi's reasons were not singular. A number of factors motivated his invasion of Korea. Although speculative hypothesis regarding his mental state is popular, domestic pressure for expansion coupled with seemingly-promising opportunities sufficiently explains the decision. TL;DR: Hideyoshi needed land and to keep his soldiers occupied. Korea was an easy ...


7

Addressing the link you cited, Tokugawa Ieyasu taking no part in fighting is not the same as opposing the war in general. In fact, Ieyasu was the one who proposed the invasion strategy that Hideyoshi adopted. When combat operations began, Tokugawa troops were part of the reserves who stayed in Kyushu. But, as you said, whether or not Ieyasu actually opposed ...


7

The answer is yes. While both the strength of fortifications and terrible mistakes from the Ottomans (I would also count the great determination and strategy of defenders as a third condition) played a highly important role, during the siege, Hospitallers used also a kind of defensive weapons that were unavailable to any other forces of their times. I ...


6

Suleiman the Magnificent died a year after the Great Siege and was succeeded by Selim II. The change in leadership also brought a change of focus. Selim decided to move against the equally strategically positioned Mediterranean island of Cyprus. The War of Cyprus started only five years after the Great Siege, and although the Ottomans ultimately prevailed, ...


6

Easy: through his mother, who was Ferdinand and Isabella's daughter.


6

Poland was indeed involved in the 30 Years War, sending death squads to aid Habsburg allies in Bohemia and getting decked when Bohemia sicced the Ottoman Empire on them. At this time, Poland-Lithuania was far more unified politically under the Magnates and royalty than the Holy Roman Empire... and nobody kid themselves, the 30 Years War was a political as ...


6

There isn't anything approaching annual time series data on these questions, so economic historians have to estimate them from other data. Kugler and Bernholz estimate that Spanish inflation averaged 1.1-1.4% per annum in the 16th century. This may sound low by modern standards, but it was quite high considering that early modern economies generally exhibit ...


5

According to this site: http://www.answerbag.com/q_view/2042196 Ivan the Terrible killed at least 60,000 people during his reign, but only publicly admitted to 3,750 people. Doing further research at this (http://www.guidetorussia.com/ivan-the-terrible.asp) website shows that the 60,000 killed was during a single event, so there was quite possibly many more ...


5

No one will give you the exact number. Some historians, for example, tells about 200,000 or even 700,000 killed in Novgorod, but at that time the entire population of the city was about 40,000. Historian Ruslan G. Skrynnikov (1931-2009) in his books «Начало опричнины» (1966), «Опричный террор» (1969), «Иван Грозный» (1975) gives the number of 3,000-4,000 ...


5

For many years, the Extremadura region was the border region between Christian and Moorish Spain. As a result, their inhabitants were quite literally "living at the edge." Hence they produced the largest number of "desperado" type conquerors. It's like saying that America's most renowned Indian fighters (e.g. Buffalo Bill Cody or George A. Custer) were ...


5

After some reading up I have the beginnings of an answer here, I think. The partition of the Habsburg lands actually took place in 1521 (The pact of Worms) and 1522 (The pact of Brussels), way before Philip II was even born. By the Worms and Brussels agreements, which were actually family documents and not diplomatic instruments, Charles's brother ...


5

Quite simple really, and basic economics: More money circulating in the economy, combined with no comparable increase in things to do with that money, leads to an increase in prices. And as the Spanish government used the bulk of that silver to coin money to pay for their wars, the amount of money in the hands of people in Spain increased dramatically. If ...


5

I cant answer for every country but for Britain, the move to formal education of naval gunnery officers came fairly late. The Royal Artillery College at Woolwich had been established in 1741 to train army officers in the necessary sciences. By comparison, the Royal Navy first established their gunnery school (known as HMS Excellent) as late as 1830. Brian ...


5

The capital of Poland was moved to Warsaw in 1595 for geographic reasons; Because of the formation of the commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania. Poland did not return to Krakow in the 20th century because Warsaw was already situated in the center of Poland, which is usually a major concern because you want a capital to be easily accessed by all the people. As for ...


5

According to Wikipedia, just like Alexandre has said the reasons were mainly geographical. Warsaw was closer to Lithuania and many noble assemblies were held there. Also, as Sigismund was also the king of Sweden, it was easier to keep track of Swedish court from Warsaw. Regarding alchemical experiment, in 1595 huge fire broke out as a result of such ...


5

I used to believe that after the establishment of the Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania, the capital was moved to Warsaw to be closer to the center of the combined country. While they're not wrong, the other answers to this effect may overlook a key factor. Its true that the Sejm or Parliament of the country began meeting in Warsaw as early as 1529, and ...


4

It's a much more complicated process than saying "Let's do it.", to provision a sea voyage of (at that time) likely 12+ months, return trip. Accurate maps didn't exist at the requisite scale, and pilots "chart's" were patentable; so a European pilot (or three) would have been advised.


4

"Spain was a powerful kingdom ruled by Ferdinand and Isabella (or their descendants) at that time." Charles V was one of those descendants. Specifically, his mother, Juana of Castile was the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, while he inherited Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Netherlands from his father and the father's parents. And Charles V ...


4

I have been travelling in Extremadura for the past 5 days. What strikes me is the large number of rivers, some surprisingly large in June, most navigable. ALS remember the Romans took the trouble to come here overland and of course the Moors and the Castilians marched and counter marched this terrain for centuries. A theory I will advance is that after the ...


4

@jwenting is correct. Inflation is defined as an increase in the money supply uncoupled from an increase in the means of production. One crucial distinction is important - you asked about an increase in "resources" - silver is specie/currency, not a simple resource. Adding specie to a market will always cause inflation. @lohoris argues that this is true ...


3

God said in Genesis 2:18, "It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him." Paul said in 1 Corinthians 7:1-2, "Now for the matters you wrote about: 'It is good for a man not to have sexual relations with a woman.' But since sexual immorality is occurring, each man should have sexual relations with his own wife..." (Ever notice ...



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