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13

Opposition to the monarchy was indeed a major factor. Many French nobles, a majority of whom adopted Calvinist doctrine, sought to regain and extend privileges lost to the monarchy. - Nexon, Daniel H. The Struggle for Power in Early Modern Europe: Religious Conflict, Dynastic Empires, and International Change. Princeton University Press, 2009. ...


8

Hideyoshi's reasons were not singular. A number of factors motivated his invasion of Korea. Although speculative hypothesis regarding his mental state is popular, domestic pressure for expansion coupled with seemingly-promising opportunities sufficiently explains the decision. TL;DR: Hideyoshi needed land and to keep his soldiers occupied. Korea was an easy ...


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There isn't anything approaching annual time series data on these questions, so economic historians have to estimate them from other data. Kugler and Bernholz estimate that Spanish inflation averaged 1.1-1.4% per annum in the 16th century. This may sound low by modern standards, but it was quite high considering that early modern economies generally exhibit ...


5

I cant answer for every country but for Britain, the move to formal education of naval gunnery officers came fairly late. The Royal Artillery College at Woolwich had been established in 1741 to train army officers in the necessary sciences. By comparison, the Royal Navy first established their gunnery school (known as HMS Excellent) as late as 1830. Brian ...


3

"Latino" or "Hispanic" refers to an American with a cultural heritage from Spain as filtered through Latin America, and says nothing about their genetic ancestry. "Taino" refers to someone with a genetic and cultural heritage from the Taino peoples of the Caribbean. A resident of Puerto Rico could be either, or neither, or both.


3

Religious sects (heresies) tend to be very heavily correlated to societies and their desires for who they want to associate with, and distance themselves from. For instance, German tribes in the late Roman period tended to take up Arianism, which quite conveniently provided them independence from Roman popes and a common sect amongst themselves. A similar ...


2

Hideyoshi's predecessor, Oda Nobunaga, ruled mainly through fear and intimidation. Hideyoshi had a more benign approach. When conquering Shikoku and Kyushsu he let the local daimyo keep their holding provided they swore him loyalty. Hence, there were no spoils of war to divide among his retainers to the same extent that Nobunaga was able to. Megalomania is ...


2

Military knowledge like this was considered highly secret and valuable and was not originally taught in schools, but Phillip II (1556-1598) saw the strategic value of cannon and greatly expanded artillery education. Originally most ships were privately owned and kings would put together fleets only temporarily for specific purposes. For example, when ...


1

This question can be subdivided into two more: 1) Why Protestantism (Calvinism and Lutheranism) vs. Catholicism and 2) Why Calvinism vs. Lutheranism. 1) For Protestantism over Catholicism. Protestant theology held that Christians were connected to God through the scriptures, rather than through the Church. This came at a time when the (Catholic) church ...


1

Japan has spent over a century in constant fighting when Hideyoshi unified the country. Typically Japanese conquerors take land from the defeated and reward their own followers. But with all of Japan conquered, there wasn't any new land to give away. Conquering Korea solves both problems. Unfortunately for Hideyoshi, the invasion failed.


1

He stayed out because he was saving his strength for taking over Japan. Right after the Korean war finished he staged a coup and took control from Hideyoshi's government. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Sekigahara



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