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6

There isn't anything approaching annual time series data on these questions, so economic historians have to estimate them from other data. Kugler and Bernholz estimate that Spanish inflation averaged 1.1-1.4% per annum in the 16th century. This may sound low by modern standards, but it was quite high considering that early modern economies generally exhibit ...


6

Easy: through his mother, who was Ferdinand and Isabella's daughter.


5

After some reading up I have the beginnings of an answer here, I think. The partition of the Habsburg lands actually took place in 1521 (The pact of Worms) and 1522 (The pact of Brussels), way before Philip II was even born. By the Worms and Brussels agreements, which were actually family documents and not diplomatic instruments, Charles's brother ...


5

Quite simple really, and basic economics: More money circulating in the economy, combined with no comparable increase in things to do with that money, leads to an increase in prices. And as the Spanish government used the bulk of that silver to coin money to pay for their wars, the amount of money in the hands of people in Spain increased dramatically. If ...


4

@jwenting is correct. Inflation is defined as an increase in the money supply uncoupled from an increase in the means of production. One crucial distinction is important - you asked about an increase in "resources" - silver is specie/currency, not a simple resource. Adding specie to a market will always cause inflation. @lohoris argues that this is true ...


4

"Spain was a powerful kingdom ruled by Ferdinand and Isabella (or their descendants) at that time." Charles V was one of those descendants. Specifically, his mother, Juana of Castile was the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, while he inherited Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Netherlands from his father and the father's parents. And Charles V ...


3

To expand on Amandeep Jiddewar's answer: The Wikipedia article on Noryang referenced by OP seems to indicate that the Japanese were not intending a retreat from the Korean Peninsula, but rather a consolidation inside their fortified perimeter around Pusan. As one of the most vulnerable maneuvers that an army can attempt is a withdrawal in the face of the ...


2

Addressing the link you cited, Tokugawa Ieyasu taking no part in fighting is not the same as opposing the war in general. In fact, Ieyasu was the one who proposed the invasion strategy that Hideyoshi adopted. When combat operations began, Tokugawa troops were part of the reserves who stayed in Kyushu. But, as you said, whether or not Ieyasu actually opposed ...


2

I knew nothing about him before reading the Wikipedia article on him five minutes ago, so hopefully someone will come up with a more informed answer. According to Wiki: Hideyoshi's health beginning to falter, but still yearning for some accomplishment to solidify his legacy, he adopted Oda Nobunaga's dream of a Japanese conquest of China and ...


2

Spain was the first to experience a high rate of inflation that swept across Western Europe in the 15th-17th centuries known as the Price Revolution. The inflation rate was about 1-1.5%. The upper estimates are 3.3%. So to answer the question, it seems counterintuitive, because these rates are not high by our standards, but since the inflation rate had been ...


1

In 1485 the House of Wettin split into the Ernestine and Albertine branches, splitting Saxony between them. During the Schmalkaldic War the two branches were headed by John Frederick I and Maurice, respectively Elector of Saxony (Ernestine) and Duke of Saxony (Albertine). The normal distinction between the two sovereignties was made through distinguishing ...


1

Here are four maps tracing the de facto control of the Low Countries through the first 30 years of the Eighty Years War: The coloured area in the first map corresponds highly with modern Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. No cities are marked, but Antwerp is located at the south-east corner of the Scheldt delta as drawn. To a first approximation, all ...


1

Japanese prepared army of 500 ships for peaceful retrieval from Korea to there homeland. "Japanese had no hopes of Invading again!" This idea was not convincing for Admiral Yi, he with his Chinese counterparts resolved to defeat Japanese once and for all and Japanese would never dream of attacking Korea again.



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