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7

There's very little concrete evidence about how command and control of the Spanish Armada worked, or indeed, how naval tactical control was exerted during that period, which pre-dates what we now call the Age of Sail. Most of the documentation that has survived from the Armada is correspondence that is essentially at the political level, i.e. between the ...


4

As noted in Alan G. Jamieson's Lords of the Sea: A History of the Barbary Corsairs and confirmed here the truce of 1580 simply called an end to the fighting between the Spanish and Ottoman Empires that never resumed. There were never any official peace talks, and so no formal agreement on territorial concessions was ever negotiated. The Ottomans ...


4

The Emperor Charles V lived out his entire life on the European continent, with a few short visits to the north African coast. He definitely never visited the colonies in the Americas. Here's what I was able to find: Easternmost Location: Vienna, in 1532, to fight off the armies of the Ottoman Empire. Westernmost Location: Seville, in 1526, for his ...


4

For battle plans and such, they used dispatch boats (which they then called "Aviso" or "Adviso", as in advice boat). These would carry orders from shore to ship and from ship to ship. For maneuvers, like Pieter said: flags and horns. Lanterns at night for guiding purposes - as seen here, resulting in a scattered English fleet when Drake snuffed it for more ...


3

I get the impression that the answer is indeed "We don't really know." This page summarizes a 1970s article by Beatrice Bodart, which I was able to find on JSTOR (free to read online if you sign up for an account): http://www.jstor.org/stable/2384071?seq=26#page_scan_tab_contents Rikyu's execution was apparently rather surprising to a number of ...


2

Suggest you start here: P.W. FLEMING, Household Servants of the Yorkist and Early Tudor Gentry, in: Daniel WILLIAMS (ed.), Early Tudor England (Harlaxton Medieval Studies, O.S., 4), Woodbridge 1989, pp. 19-36


1

Why did Ferdinand become emperor after Charles V? Charles V was elected emperor on 28 June 1519 and crowned King of the Romans on 26 October 1520. He was crowned King of Italy on 22 February 1530 and crowned Emperor of the Romans on 24 February 1530. For various reasons the seven electors met and agreed to make Ferdinand the next emperor. He was elected ...



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