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18

Financial Wikipedia answers: The guinea is a coin that was minted in the Kingdom of England and later in the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom between 1663 and 1814. It was the first English machine-struck gold coin, originally worth one pound sterling, equal to twenty shillings; but rises in the price of gold relative to silver ...


11

According to the Wikisource document that article is based on, Wikipedia accidentally left out an "fl." in the age span (i.e. it ought to be "MISSELDEN, EDWARD (fl. 1608-1654)"). "fl." (Latin Floruit) means "flourished", i.e. we know that Misselden was active in the period 1608 to 1654, but we don't know when he was born or died. If that's true, then he ...


11

It is a widely used epitaph of the time for beloved wives (see here and here), and seems to refer to Luke 10:38-42: (New International Version (NIV)) At the Home of Martha and Mary 38 As Jesus and his disciples were on their way, he came to a village where a woman named Martha opened her home to him. 39 She had a sister called Mary, who sat ...


10

That Poland avoided internal wars of religion can indeed be attributed to the religious tolerance of the state at this time, a tolerance that stretches back a long time. And this has to do with it's position where many of it's neighbouring countries were not Catholic. To the east the Kievan Rus adopted Orthodoxy, and further north the areas now known as ...


10

It is commonly accepted that the Spanish Empire, which rose to the pinnacle of its strength under Charles V/I and Philip II was in decline by early seventeenth century and, in spite (or perhaps because?) of strenuous efforts to arrest and reverse that decline during the early 17th century, it declined and by 1643 or 1659 (not random dates..) it was a shadow ...


9

At the moment of his election (1641), it seems that Mazarin was in minor orders - so called "lay cardinal". After that, there seems to be little consensus and pretty much no primary sources, but if anything, he was a cardinal-priest. By the process of elimination, he was a cardinal-priest: He was definitely not a cardinal-deacon. From "The Cardinals of ...


8

I've finally found the exact sentences, so I'm putting here a new answer instead of the yesterday's one. As it's written in official materials of Copernikus' Museum in Frombork, Poland, such corrections were done simply by striking out some parts of the text and it happened only with something like 8% books that survived until recent times. It was their ...


8

Vienna was besieged in 1683. In the Treaty of Bakhchisarai, Russia agreed not to fight Ottoman Empire for the time between 1681 and 1701, and actually kept the promise... until 1686 that is. Then it joined the European coalition and started Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700), which it won, gaining Azov and Taganrog. Both were lost soon in 1711, Azov re-taken by ...


8

According to Cardinal Richelieu's Wikipedia page he was a cardinal priest until December 4, 1642, the day of his death. Mazarin is difficult to find specific information on. According to his Wikipedia page, Jules Mazarin succeeded Richelieu. Since I cannot find any information on which kind of cardinal Mazarin was, I can only assume that he was a cardinal ...


8

"Taking a vomit" may have meant more generally taking something to cause vomiting, what we would call an emetic. See eg. http://thequackdoctor.com/index.php/tag/17th-century/ If you are ill it's because something is out of balance. It's a lot easier to get stuff out of a patient to adjust the balance - so the popularity of purges, emetics, bloodletting ...


8

Privateering is a tool of international conflict Read wikipedia; until forbidden by international law, privateering was a tool of international cold war. France encouraged the corsairs against Spain, and later Britain and Holland supported them against France. By the second half of the 17th century the greater European naval powers were able to strike ...


8

According to this source by the Treaty of Bärwald: Richelieu, however, turned against the Habsburgs young Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, paying him a subsidy of a million livres a year by the treaty of Bärwald of the 23rd of January 1631. Wikipedia states: The treaty obliged Sweden to maintain an army of 36,000 troops, and France to fund the Swedish ...


8

The reason for this involves the difference between wholesale and retail trade. Wholesale trade and banking was conducted in gold (guineas), retail in silver (pounds sterling). The reason for the price difference was to provide a commission. A common practice in England was to conduct wholesale business in trade auctions. The price would be quoted in ...


7

Many 17th century settlers in what is now the United States were indeed indigent or criminals, but not all, and we should understand the "criminality" in question. Many English farmers lost their livelihood due to enclosure, which had reached new heights during the Tudor years. Some ran themselves into debt and faced debtors' prison (indeed, Georgia Colony ...


7

Indeed, in a somewhat similar situation, in the 15th century Italian Condottieri such as Sforza, Braccio da Montone and Malatesta did use their mercenary armies to seize control of city-states and become dukes and lords. However, in 17th century Northern Europe such a development was more or less unthinkable. The reason is, I think, that the power in 17th ...


6

You might find this enlightening: Naval tactics in the Age of Sail Also: Line of Battle To address your main points: Distance: The fleets could get pretty close, Battle of the Chesapeake page has a quite good map. Also it was possible for ships to pair off a fight in close quarters like at Quiberon Bay). I can't say, but the artists representations look ...


6

Ireland at the time was under British rule and Britain didn't adopt the Gregorian calendar until 1752 so it would still officially be on the Julian calender and written records would use this. Since Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calender much sooner (it being introduced by pope Gregory) it's possible that Catholic church sources, especially those ...


5

It probably depends on where. One important social meeting place at which news would be exchanged was actually coffeehouses. This holds true for the Ottoman Empire, which originally popularised the drinking of coffee after the taking of Yemen. From there it spread to Europe, where coffeehouses also became an important focal point for the transmission of ...


5

I imagine the town crier would have been an important source of news prior to mass-literacy.


5

In his famous 1872 book "Русская история в жизнеописаниях ее главнейших деятелей" ("Russian history in the biographies of its main actors") Nikolay Kostomarov writes (rough translation): We still don't know how the relation between the Tsar Aleksey Mikhailovich and Nikon, who the tsar previously considered his best friend, cooled down. In 1656 Nikon was ...


5

The Indians of the North-East had become dependent on the Colonists for supplies of ball and powder for their newly favoured ranged weapon, the flintlock musket. Their supplies of these rarely exceeded a season's worth, and they had failed to stockpile additional reserves in preparation for the war. Although the initial onslaught had chased the Colonists ...


5

That's not the winter uniform, it's simply the uniform, and was worn in all weathers. In Russia in the early 17th century, strel’tsy (semiprofessional musketeers) wore red caftans (coats) with a white sash. In the second half of the 17th century, they wore fur-trimmed caftans of various colors, cloth caps, and colored high boots. ... Working ...


4

I'd like to expand Felix's answer in relation to soft-power (such as "legitimacy"). Mercenary captains did not participate in the reproduction of feudal wealth, they merely directly expropriated it (or received payment from the emergent state). Traditional rulers participated in the full reproduction of economic life, they imposed status on the third ...


4

Thomas Nashe's 1592 work Pierce Penilesse, His Supplication to the Divell implies a use of wigs to hide the indications of venereal disease: "Men and women that have gone under the South pole, must lay off their furde night-caps in spight of their teeth, and become yeomen of the vineger bottle: a close periwig hides al the sinnes of an olde ...


4

Poland was indeed involved in the 30 Years War, sending death squads to aid Habsburg allies in Bohemia and getting decked when Bohemia sicced the Ottoman Empire on them. At this time, Poland-Lithuania was far more unified politically under the Magnates and royalty than the Holy Roman Empire... and nobody kid themselves, the 30 Years War was a political as ...


4

A proximate cause of the Spanish empire was the Netherlands War of Independence (which lasted 80 years), and other revolts against Spain. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War The Spanish Empire had been "cobbled" together in the late 15th and early 16th centuries by the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, whose daughter ...


4

Aboutcivil.org estimates the value at 50 million rupees based on the price of gold to rupees at the time. The site estimates the value at $500 million in 2005. At 1.4 rupees per gram of gold, that's around 35,700 kilograms of gold. Today that's worth around $1.5 billion. Certainly enough to put a dent in almost any treasury.


4

Bogdan Khmelnytsky was arguably the "William Wallace" of the Ukraine. He not only took on the one noble, but the whole Polish noble "Establishment," to the point where even the King of Poland (a personal friend), wouldn't defend him. So he basically started a war between his Cossacks and the Poles. He was initially successful but the Poles were ...


4

It is the baton of the Constable of France, or rather an imitation of it. The explanation of this particular baton is that William of Orange was originally the disciple and member of the court of Holy Roman Emperor, King Charles V. Charles fought many wars in France and as a sort of propaganda measure Charles let himself out as following in the tradition of ...


3

Tuscany had a military alliance and family ties with the Habsburg empire - at the time, Fakhr-al-Din was plotting to break free of Ottoman rule, and the Ottoman Empire was a longstanding enemy of the Austrians. He had hoped to enlist the aid of European powers like Austria and Spain, and was ready to hand over concessions in the holy land to get it - he was ...



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