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Note that for the time period of interest there was no single German state, as we are talking not only long before the German unification of the mid Nineteenth Century but also well before the simplification of German states that occurred during the Napoleonic period. Consequently: Up to that time [1871] several dozen independent German States and ...


When people owe more money than have, they have to make specific excuses from where the funds will originate for any new expenditures. Peter drew money from poll taxes and land taxes, but those monies were heavily claimed by various creditors and entities, such as the army. Since such money comes from the people, they demand satisfaction for its use. The ...


This refers to the French pound, the livre. French money was in common use in Germany, Italy and many other places during the 1700s. The livre was worth about $12 - $25. There were 24 silver livres in a Louis, which was the gold coin.

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