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13

Several memoirs of the period suggest that the Berlin to Vienna journey very likely could be completed in 12 days or less. This matches up fairly closely to @Eugene's estimate of two weeks. However, one account suggests that someone with more limited resources and unexpected delays could easily take much more time. The route they [1,2,3,4] usually seem to ...


13

Straight-line distance from Berlin to Vienna is 523 kilometers or 325 miles according to Wolfram Alpha. In a car traveling at a constant speed of 55 miles per hour (ca. 88 km/h), total travel time would be 5 hours and 55 minutes. However, roads are not perfectly straight. According to Google Maps the shortest route is 678 km long and you would need at least ...


9

The situation is complex. While the pike-or-equivalent must be of a sufficient length and density to be effective against cavalry, the longer the weapon the more difficult it is to adjust formation and facing. Cavalry's most effective weapon on the battlefield is its speed. A mass of spearmen facing one direction are easily flanked and broken up, and then ...


9

Using ORBIS which reconstructs travel through the Roman Empire circa 200CE as a basis, a fast carriage across ~700kms (I chose Naples to Verona) would have taken about 10 days. A horse relay team between the same cities only took 3.6 days to cover 763 kms. One could use these numbers as a rule of thumb for all pre-industrial travel on decent roads. That ...


8

Privateering is a tool of international conflict Read wikipedia; until forbidden by international law, privateering was a tool of international cold war. France encouraged the corsairs against Spain, and later Britain and Holland supported them against France. By the second half of the 17th century the greater European naval powers were able to strike ...


7

I can find a literary reference; I have no idea whether the depiction of the anecdote is accurate. The reference is in the notes to La Gastronomie by Joseph de Berchoux, which was somehow famous in France in the 19th century and coined the word gastronomie. The poem was first published in 1801 (the edition I link to is from 1819). The notes look like they ...


7

- How were the borders of small European principalities maintained or secured? They weren't, really. Even accurate maps didn't exist until sometime in the late 18th century when the Longitude Problem was solved. However, as all of these little sovereignties were the personal possession of their sovereign, this did not affect the common people in their ...


7

According to the official website of the Richard III Society, in their primer "A Brief Biography and Introduction to Richard's Reputation" by Wendy E.A. Moorhen: The Great Debate, as the study of Richard's reputation became known, truly began in the seventeenth century when Horace Walpole wrote his Historic Doubts and rattled the cages of the ...


6

There is an unobvious connection pointed out by Tarle: Before the Seven Years War the major threat for the colonists was the French in Canada who could conceivably mount an invasion and conquer the colonies (who hardly relished the prospect). The only sure protection against that was Britain. Once Britain had vanquished France and removed the ever-present ...


6

Since this during a morning levée I assume it's a negligé cap. The purpose of this is to cover the head (which was typically shaved) when you did not have a wig.


6

It appears so. See The Unreformed House of Commons: Parliamentary Representation before 1832 (1903), by Edward Porritt, for a discussion on this. On page 357-358: "It was in this period when, as the North correspondence shows, a nomination to a seat fetched from two thousand five hundred to three thousand pounds, that seats were first advertised for ...


6

They were assigned to the Musketeer's unit. Unit names rarely designate the actual weapons - for example, there was a regiment of Fusiliers in the UK army in 1962, but they didn't use flintlocks (Fusilier is a word that means "flintlock shooter"), nor do the Grenadiers fight exclusively with grenades. And the Horse Guards... Or to choose another example, ...


5

The North American version of the Seven Years' War was the 1[French and Indian War]. And yes, it did set the stage for the American Revolution for at least three reasons: It provided a causus belli. The French and Indian War cost a lot of money, which the British tried to recoup by taxing the "Americans" of the Thirteen Colonies. The result was a battle ...


5

It means "Dawn", quite simply, with an elided "of the" to keep the rhythm.


5

It seems the key word I should've been looking for is "Christian Slavery". E.g. this NYT article says: Southern Christians believed that the Bible imposed on masters a host of obligations to their slaves. Most fundamentally, masters were to view slaves as fully members of their own households and as fellow brothers and sisters in the Lord. Therefore, as ...


4

There are two types of Empresses. The first type is an Empress Consort, who is the wife of an Emperor. The second is a ruling Empress, basically a female Emperor, who inherited the crown from her father, or in this case, her husband. Catherine started as Peter's Empress Consort, that is, Empress by marriage. But when Peter crowned Catherine Empress, he had ...


4

Balancing the Budget is very different from eliminating the National Debt. A Balanced Budget simply means that a country made a decrease, no matter how small, in the National Debt over the specified time period (usually a year). Given the horrendous expense of running Louis XIV's court, it is easy to see how the Budget might have improved simply in ...


4

I passed the question to the professional historians at Mt Vernon (Washington's home). The Mt. Vernon research historian provided the following information, which I'll quote. Interesting...I've been on the staff here at Mount Vernon for almost 34 years and have never heard anything about Washington riding sidesaddle. I think what people might be ...


4

It appears that this was almost certainly not the case. Here are some of the things contemporaries said of Washington's horsemanship during the revolution: "the best horseman of his age, and the most graceful figure that could be seen on horseback." - Thomas Jefferson "a very excellent and bold horseman, leaping the highest fences, and going extremely ...


4

The answer appears to be "yes" in both cases: Tariffs in United States history: In the colonial era, before 1775, nearly every colony levied its own tariffs, usually with lower rates for British products. There were taxes on ships (on a tonnage basis), import taxes on slaves, export taxes on tobacco, and import taxes on alcoholic beverages. The ...


3

I believe that the author is referring to William Pitt the Younger, who was at various times Chancellor of the Exchequer and Prime Minister during the end of the reign of George III and then during the Napoleonic Wars. He was a strong advocate of free trade policies as advocated by Adam Smith. There is a story where Pitt and other dignitaries refused to sit ...


3

Sugar went from luxury to "necessity", to people actually eating much more of it than is even remotely healthy, because it went from expensive, to affordable, to really, really cheap. This development is paralleled by a lot of other foodstuffs, and is a part of the general agricultural/industrial revolution and globalization that has happened the last ...


3

It was Sun Tzu, in the Art of War, that advocated putting soldiers in death ground to make them fight. "Put them in a spot where they have no place to go, and they will die before fleeing. If they are to die there, what can they not do? Warriors exert their full strength. When warriors are in great danger, then they have no fear. When there is nowhere to go ...


3

It could well be that Annobon, being farther out from the two Bights, has better sailing conditions - more access to trade winds, less likely for fleets to be caught by a contrary wind against the two shores. Thus it is more convenient as a base for ships travelling on to the far east via Africa.


3

During the 18th and beginning of 19th centuries the Deys of Algiers made a series of treaties with European seafaring nations. Each of the European states would deliver yearly “gifts” in order to secure free passage of their ships. Otherwise, the corsairs of the North African states would capture whatever they could of ships: seize the cargoes and ships, and ...


3

Plutarch, writing about 100 AD, in his "Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans" has a commentary about the Roman Cato the Elder who recommended working slaves hard and selling them off when they became unable to work. He critiques this as being inhumane and immoral, saying that slaves should be cared for after their life of service. So humanizing slavery ...


2

Let's consider a well documented journey by Napoleon in 1809, a mere 40 years later. The basic technologies are all the same, though the network of metalled roads has been steadily expanding through that time. Napoleon was in a hurry, had the resources of an Empire at his command, and travelled similarly to how a diplomat might have travelled in the ...


2

There were made efforts to end the Barbary pirate raids. The only problem in this picture is that you are seeing England, France, Spain and the Netherlands (my country) as fully developed countries which in that time they were not. Civilians were not important and losses were just part of the risk a sailer had to take. The big sailing companies had no ...


2

Of course that was the common usage; it still is the normal and traditional English language usage of the word native; not to be confused with modern political correctness-ese usage: Definition of Native: noun 1. a person born in a specified place or associated with a place by birth, whether subsequently resident there or not. "a native of Montreal" ...


2

Starting in 1776 and continuing through the end (!) of the Civil War, there was a gradual evolution in the institution of slavery in the US. Some of the changes could possibly be described as making slavery more "humane," although that's not necessarily the word I'd use. Slave marriages were not legally recognized, and were initially discouraged. But when ...



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