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31

There were several names for the war depending on the belligerent. Here are a few: Prussia and Austria: Dritter Schlesischer Krieg (third Sileasian war) (refers to Austria trying to reconquer Silesia) France: La guerre de la Conquête (War of Conquest) Britain: French and Indian War or Great War for the Empire Sweden: Pommerska kriget (Pomeranian War) (...


15

One important factor was the warmer weather in most parts of the south. That led to two important effects: 1) the cultivability of cash crops such as cotton and sugar, and 2) relatively short winters. The cash crops were important because that's how slave labor was transformed into profits. Long winters were a liability, because slaves had to be fed while ...


10

Request vs Demand There is a difference between a theoretical right, and the practical ability to exercise that right. In theory, you are correct that the Confederation Congress was empowered to set tax quotas and due dates for the States.[1] In reality however, Congress had no actual means of enforcing this. Under the Articles of Confederation, ...


8

From Wikipedia's reference desk (originally discussing moving images): On the German wikipedia, we had a fascinating discussion about the earliest born person of whom a photograph exists. We managed to go back to a birth date of around 1746 Skimming the German discussion, it seems the winner there was Hannah Stilley Gorbey, an elderly American lady ...


8

Frederick was at least as capable a battlefield commander as Napoleon, who was himself probably only the sixth best French battlefield commander of his generation, after Davout, Desaix, Lannes, Massena, and Soult. Aside: Napoleon never truly mastered the battlefield use of any arm besides artillery, and in battles personally directed by himself over relied ...


7

The most obvious reason is that using a musket requires both hands to load and fire, so a shield would be very cumbersome. They could potentially use a free-standing pavaise, in the manner used by earlier crossbowmen, but that would limit their freedom of movement and still be impractical if you wanted multiple ranks firing. There was a lot more movement on ...


7

Note that for the time period of interest there was no single German state, as we are talking not only long before the German unification of the mid Nineteenth Century but also well before the simplification of German states that occurred during the Napoleonic period. Consequently: Up to that time [1871] several dozen independent German States and ...


7

Because keeping a slave costs money 24/7 whether they're working or not: it's like owning a limousine that you only use a few times a year rather than hiring one on an as-needed basis. Hired hands only have to be paid when they're actually working. As the North was becoming more and more industrial, it became less and less economically viable to own workers ...


7

Prussia as been described as "an army with a piece of land attached." That said, some of the things implied by the book are not correct. First, men were conscripted around age 20, but that doesn't mean that they were kept in the army until age 60. They were typically released when they exited "military age" (late twenties) and another batch of men were ...


7

You are probably referring to the Royal Cornwall Militia. This unit was deployed to Devon in March 1797, as part of the coastal defence against an anticipated French invasion. In all likelihood, this would be why Francis Green was in the parish of Totnes the next year. 6th March: The Cornish Militia came into Dover to be quartered in Town during the ...


6

Much of what you desire to know will be summed up by researching both the history of Marine Insurance, perhaps starting with the founding of Lloyd's Coffee House in about 1688; the history of the early trading companies such as Honourable East India Company (1600) ; United East Indian Company (aka Dutch East India Company) (1602) - ; and The Governor and ...


6

The Cabinet Historique et topographique militaire was created by a decree the 28th August 1794. The decree goes in detail about the work and the organization to the point of naming who does what. A second decree (16/06/1795) has also elements of organization. The decrees don't mention office hours. The work done by the bureau in support of the armies was ...


6

There is a book on the subject of the Rhineland subjugation called "From Reich to State: The Rhineland in the Revolutionary Age, 1780-1830" by Michael Rowe. On p. 203 of this book it says that many currencies, including the Franc, continued to be used. The main impact of the takeover was that the Franc became the only currency in which taxes could be paid, ...


6

Prices are occasionally mentioned in mid-18th century journals; for example, David Zeisberger's journals, available here: Diary of David Zeisberger : a Moravian missionary among the Indians of Ohio. In this one you will discover that a buck skin is worth a dollar, which is repeated in various frontier sources between 1750 and 1800 that I have read; this is ...


5

There can be little doubt that indentured servitude decreased as reliance on slave labor increased. However, the dwindling supply of indentured European labor must be considered as at least one of the reasons American planters increasingly turned to an enslaved African labor force. Nonetheless, without the increased availability of enslaved Africans, ...


4

I can address your confusion in latter part at least. According to Maddison, The UK's GDP passed France's sometime between 1700 and 1820 and Spain's by 1700. According to Bairoch, England's GDP passed France's between 1830 and 1840 and was far past Spain's by 1800 (when his numbers start). So at the absolute least, it appears the UK's economy was doing ...


4

Frederick the Great was well regarded by slightly later military leaders such as Napoleon, and also the writer von Clausewitz, who admired both Frederick and Napoleon (the latter said of Frederick, "Gentlemen, if this man were still alive I would not be here.") Frederick was a personally brave commander who personally directed troops in battle and was known ...


4

There were a few early battles where Frederick left the field before the end of the day but the remaining officers managed to pull off a victory despite that. Some anti-Frederick histories report more of these based of dubious sources. But the drive that led to spectacular battlefield victories and costly defeats, and at times brought Prussia to the edge of ...


3

This will be a poor answer because I cannot locate my sources. Several years ago the Colonial Williamsburg podcast did a series of episodes on slavery and indentured servitude. One of the inflection points was Bacon's rebellion; after Bacon's rebellion there was a shift away from indentured servitude and towards stricter forms of slavery. Cultural, legal ...


3

Immediately prior to the French Invasion, Egypt was part of the Ottoman Empire, which stretched roughly to the modern boundary of Libya in the west, the first cataract of the Nile, and down the Red Sea coast to roughly the boundary of modern Somalia. However, the African boundaries of the Ottoman Empire at this time were mostly a polite fiction, and Egypt ...


3

When people owe more money than have, they have to make specific excuses from where the funds will originate for any new expenditures. Peter drew money from poll taxes and land taxes, but those monies were heavily claimed by various creditors and entities, such as the army. Since such money comes from the people, they demand satisfaction for its use. The ...


3

While investigating a different part of the French revolution, I came to the following conclusion: Until October 6, 1789, the National Constituent Assembly met in the Hôtel des Menus Plaisirs, Versailles. October 6, 1789 and onwards, the National Constituent Assembly met in Salle du Manège, Paris. Therefore they met in the Hôtel des Menus Plaisirs on ...


2

There were three main periods in the Ottoman Empire. The first was known for internal, but not external stability; the second was known for both external and internal stability; and the last was known for neither. The Ottoman Empire took its form after the capture of Constantinople in 1453, which it took at its capital. For the next two and a half centuries,...


2

George Washington had in total about 300 slaves at the height of his slave-owning career, but only about 150 were directly his, the others being indirectly his since they were acquired through family connections and so on. I think Martha Washington brought many or maybe most of them to the marriage--a lot of George's wealth (land, etc.) came from marrying ...


2

The answer is mainly that the South is where cotton grows , also this and this. Cotton was a very valuable cash crop, contributing about 2/3 of U.S. export value by 1840. It's also labor intensive. Cotton production really took off after short staple cotton became profitable (due to the invention of the cotton gin). The cotton belt is essentially the ...


2

I'm not sure anyone knows for sure, but the prime contenders seem to be this landscape with a man getting a shoe shine in the background from 1838 and this self portrait of Robert Cornelius from 1839.


2

Another good reason is that a shield does not protect you against firearm. A wooden shield is easily penetrated, an iron shield would be too heavy, and modern materials like aluminium were not available. EDIT. A shield mostly protects from bow arrows and to some extent from a sword blow. But even the earliest improved bows (Greek gastraphetes and medieval ...


2

This list of medieval prices indicates the price of a draught horse in the 13th century to be between 10s and 20s,, while this estimate of global inflation shows prices in 1750 being 8 or 9 times what they were 500 years earlier. I note that the steady inflation from the early modern era is due to the influx of American silver into the European economy by ...


2

Chess and science are two totally different. In any case, if you are talking about England the answer is no. The only reliable way to make money at chess in England in those days was to play in coffeehouses for small stakes. The pre-eminent example of this type of player was Joseph Henry Blackburne. The general social conditions in those days would the ...


2

The problem you have with such a journey, at the time, is there is no direct way to travel between the two. From most texts I have read about shipping to Philadelphia entry is only through the Delaware River that makes up the border of New Jersey and Delaware. When reading about Howe's exit from Philadelphia this is prominent as the Colonials were ...



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