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36

Rum was easily obtained in the sugarcane rich Caribbean and olden day South Seas Pirates, who would drink anything they could get their hands on if it had a kick, were associated with the drinking of rum. So, while they would drink other forms of liquor if they could obtain it, the average Pirate crew member drank what he could afford, and that's what made ...


21

Historical evidence suggests, and I am writing from the wiki article of origin of Rum, that during the late 16th and early 17th century, sugarcane plantation slaves in the Caribbean islands discovered a byproduct of sugar-making i.e. Molasses can be converted to alcoholic beverage. After fine tuning the distillation process they produced the refined Rum. And ...


16

I don't have details for 1792, but the following are from James' Naval History for January 1793 (so probably good enough to get an idea of the relative strengths of the fleets). These cover the principal fleets at the main naval bases. At Brest Ready or fitting for Sea 1 120-gun ship of the line 2 110-gun ships of the line 4 80-gun ships of the line 12 ...


12

Origins and availability or the drink aside (this was covered by Rico and the Major already)... life on a sailing ship was hard. Especially ships prepared for combat -- like a navy's warships -- had large crews, which made for very cramped living and no privacy. The work aboard was hard and dangerous, and that's before the guns were ran out to engage an ...


7

Note that for the time period of interest there was no single German state, as we are talking not only long before the German unification of the mid Nineteenth Century but also well before the simplification of German states that occurred during the Napoleonic period. Consequently: Up to that time [1871] several dozen independent German States and ...


7

The short answer to your question is that for much of his early life Napoleon was a Corsican patriot but only a French opportunist. He inherited from his father a fierce love of both Corsica and Pasquale Paoli, and did not consider himself French nor was he particularly loyal to France outside of the fact that it gave him an opportunity to move up in life. ...


7

We have the following statements in Burke's writings: They [leaders of previous revolutions] were not like Jew brokers contending with each other who could best remedy with fraudulent circulation and depreciated paper the wretchedness and ruin brought on by their degenerate councils. (Reflections on the Revolution in France) We have in London very ...


7

The French navy suffered considerably due to the French revolution. Having finished the American War of Independence on something approaching a high (comparatively speaking), the French navy suffered a reverse that it never fully recovered from until well after the finish of the Napoleonic Wars. Like most other European navies of the time, the officers ...


7

The most obvious reason is that using a musket requires both hands to load and fire, so a shield would be very cumbersome. They could potentially use a free-standing pavaise, in the manner used by earlier crossbowmen, but that would limit their freedom of movement and still be impractical if you wanted multiple ranks firing. There was a lot more movement on ...


7

You are probably referring to the Royal Cornwall Militia. This unit was deployed to Devon in March 1797, as part of the coastal defence against an anticipated French invasion. In all likelihood, this would be why Francis Green was in the parish of Totnes the next year. 6th March: The Cornish Militia came into Dover to be quartered in Town during the ...


6

The Cabinet Historique et topographique militaire was created by a decree the 28th August 1794. The decree goes in detail about the work and the organization to the point of naming who does what. A second decree (16/06/1795) has also elements of organization. The decrees don't mention office hours. The work done by the bureau in support of the armies was ...


6

There is a book on the subject of the Rhineland subjugation called "From Reich to State: The Rhineland in the Revolutionary Age, 1780-1830" by Michael Rowe. On p. 203 of this book it says that many currencies, including the Franc, continued to be used. The main impact of the takeover was that the Franc became the only currency in which taxes could be paid, ...


6

Much of what you desire to know will be summed up by researching both the history of Marine Insurance, perhaps starting with the founding of Lloyd's Coffee House in about 1688; the history of the early trading companies such as Honourable East India Company (1600) ; United East Indian Company (aka Dutch East India Company) (1602) - ; and The Governor and ...


5

There can be little doubt that indentured servitude decreased as reliance on slave labor increased. However, the dwindling supply of indentured European labor must be considered as at least one of the reasons American planters increasingly turned to an enslaved African labor force. Nonetheless, without the increased availability of enslaved Africans, ...


5

The Congress of the Confederation could "ascertain" and "appropriate" money from states or make "requisitions" on the States, as is stated in the Articles of Confederation: The United States in Congress assembled shall have authority . . . to ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of the United States, and to appropriate ...


4

Fairly simply, the Federalists had a majority in both houses of Congress at the time, and held the Presidency. So they had the power to do it. They were suffering withering attacks from Jefferson and Madison's newly organized Democratic-Republican Party, which had just run its first presidential campaign in the previous cycle, and had developed its own ...


4

I can address your confusion in latter part at least. According to Maddison, The UK's GDP passed France's sometime between 1700 and 1820 and Spain's by 1700. According to Bairoch, England's GDP passed France's between 1830 and 1840 and was far past Spain's by 1800 (when his numbers start). So at the absolute least, it appears the UK's economy was doing ...


3

Immediately prior to the French Invasion, Egypt was part of the Ottoman Empire, which stretched roughly to the modern boundary of Libya in the west, the first cataract of the Nile, and down the Red Sea coast to roughly the boundary of modern Somalia. However, the African boundaries of the Ottoman Empire at this time were mostly a polite fiction, and Egypt ...


3

When people owe more money than have, they have to make specific excuses from where the funds will originate for any new expenditures. Peter drew money from poll taxes and land taxes, but those monies were heavily claimed by various creditors and entities, such as the army. Since such money comes from the people, they demand satisfaction for its use. The ...


3

This will be a poor answer because I cannot locate my sources. Several years ago the Colonial Williamsburg podcast did a series of episodes on slavery and indentured servitude. One of the inflection points was Bacon's rebellion; after Bacon's rebellion there was a shift away from indentured servitude and towards stricter forms of slavery. Cultural, legal ...


3

Specially for you, a remarkable book survives, and there is even an excellent English translation with technical commentaries. And free on the Internet: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Frontinus/De_Aquis/text*.html Frontinus was a noble who was appointed by the princeps (Nerva) to supervise the water supply system of Rome. He decided to ...


3

The pirates, as well as regular navy sailors drank what was available. For example, the British sailors had regular rations of beer or wine. When this was not available, they drank rum or whatever was available. As rum was produced in large quantities in the Caribbean, it was the most common alcoholic drink there. As the most common pirates in the popular ...


3

It looks you have an Electro Plated Nickel Silver. The technology is not old enough to origin from 18th century. From a site where you can find identical font type: Modern electroplating was invented by Italian chemist Luigi V. Brugnatelli in 1805. And the picture which is similar enough: So the number as Steve Bird suspected correcty it should be ...


3

Normally a sword is worn from a sash or belt worn across the shoulder, known as a baldric. The scabbard is attached to the belt by a contraption of strings and leather known as a frog. In some cases scabbards were made with eyes. In this case, only a cord is needed to hang it from the belt, or it can be hung directly on a shoulder strap. In some cases, ...


3

According to the Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography (p23), he was born at Bastida, Spain in 1744 and died post 1784.


2

George Washington had in total about 300 slaves at the height of his slave-owning career, but only about 150 were directly his, the others being indirectly his since they were acquired through family connections and so on. I think Martha Washington brought many or maybe most of them to the marriage--a lot of George's wealth (land, etc.) came from marrying ...


2

For the most part they borrowed the money. A lot of the money was borrowed from France and Holland who were both eager to make trouble for the British. For example, in June of 1787 John Adams borrowed 1 million guilders from Holland on behalf of the Congress. The congress also issued a lot of domestic debt, notably bonds they called "loan-office ...


2

Another good reason is that a shield does not protect you against firearm. A wooden shield is easily penetrated, an iron shield would be too heavy, and modern materials like aluminium were not available. EDIT. A shield mostly protects from bow arrows and to some extent from a sword blow. But even the earliest improved bows (Greek gastraphetes and medieval ...


1

This refers to the French pound, the livre. French money was in common use in Germany, Italy and many other places during the 1700s. The livre was worth about $12 - $25. There were 24 silver livres in a Louis, which was the gold coin.


1

Performance on the battlefield is often about tactical organisation and method, rather than equipment and individual skill. Musketry was on the whole massively ineffective. Prussia had better tactical organisation during the Frederick the Great Period, but relatively short lived, The French were generally better after that. I know Napoleonic period is ...



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