Hot answers tagged

16

I don't have details for 1792, but the following are from James' Naval History for January 1793 (so probably good enough to get an idea of the relative strengths of the fleets). These cover the principal fleets at the main naval bases. At Brest Ready or fitting for Sea 1 120-gun ship of the line 2 110-gun ships of the line 4 80-gun ships of the line 12 ...


10

Request vs Demand There is a difference between a theoretical right, and the practical ability to exercise that right. In theory, you are correct that the Confederation Congress was empowered to set tax quotas and due dates for the States.[1] In reality however, Congress had no actual means of enforcing this. Under the Articles of Confederation, ...


8

From Wikipedia's reference desk (originally discussing moving images): On the German wikipedia, we had a fascinating discussion about the earliest born person of whom a photograph exists. We managed to go back to a birth date of around 1746 Skimming the German discussion, it seems the winner there was Hannah Stilley Gorbey, an elderly American lady ...


7

Note that for the time period of interest there was no single German state, as we are talking not only long before the German unification of the mid Nineteenth Century but also well before the simplification of German states that occurred during the Napoleonic period. Consequently: Up to that time [1871] several dozen independent German States and ...


7

Prussia as been described as "an army with a piece of land attached." That said, some of the things implied by the book are not correct. First, men were conscripted around age 20, but that doesn't mean that they were kept in the army until age 60. They were typically released when they exited "military age" (late twenties) and another batch of men were ...


7

The most obvious reason is that using a musket requires both hands to load and fire, so a shield would be very cumbersome. They could potentially use a free-standing pavaise, in the manner used by earlier crossbowmen, but that would limit their freedom of movement and still be impractical if you wanted multiple ranks firing. There was a lot more movement on ...


7

You are probably referring to the Royal Cornwall Militia. This unit was deployed to Devon in March 1797, as part of the coastal defence against an anticipated French invasion. In all likelihood, this would be why Francis Green was in the parish of Totnes the next year. 6th March: The Cornish Militia came into Dover to be quartered in Town during the ...


6

Prices are occasionally mentioned in mid-18th century journals; for example, David Zeisberger's journals, available here: Diary of David Zeisberger : a Moravian missionary among the Indians of Ohio. In this one you will discover that a buck skin is worth a dollar, which is repeated in various frontier sources between 1750 and 1800 that I have read; this is ...


6

Much of what you desire to know will be summed up by researching both the history of Marine Insurance, perhaps starting with the founding of Lloyd's Coffee House in about 1688; the history of the early trading companies such as Honourable East India Company (1600) ; United East Indian Company (aka Dutch East India Company) (1602) - ; and The Governor and ...


6

There is a book on the subject of the Rhineland subjugation called "From Reich to State: The Rhineland in the Revolutionary Age, 1780-1830" by Michael Rowe. On p. 203 of this book it says that many currencies, including the Franc, continued to be used. The main impact of the takeover was that the Franc became the only currency in which taxes could be paid, ...


6

The Cabinet Historique et topographique militaire was created by a decree the 28th August 1794. The decree goes in detail about the work and the organization to the point of naming who does what. A second decree (16/06/1795) has also elements of organization. The decrees don't mention office hours. The work done by the bureau in support of the armies was ...


5

There can be little doubt that indentured servitude decreased as reliance on slave labor increased. However, the dwindling supply of indentured European labor must be considered as at least one of the reasons American planters increasingly turned to an enslaved African labor force. Nonetheless, without the increased availability of enslaved Africans, ...


5

The Congress of the Confederation could "ascertain" and "appropriate" money from states or make "requisitions" on the States, as is stated in the Articles of Confederation: The United States in Congress assembled shall have authority . . . to ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of the United States, and to appropriate ...


4

I can address your confusion in latter part at least. According to Maddison, The UK's GDP passed France's sometime between 1700 and 1820 and Spain's by 1700. According to Bairoch, England's GDP passed France's between 1830 and 1840 and was far past Spain's by 1800 (when his numbers start). So at the absolute least, it appears the UK's economy was doing ...


3

Immediately prior to the French Invasion, Egypt was part of the Ottoman Empire, which stretched roughly to the modern boundary of Libya in the west, the first cataract of the Nile, and down the Red Sea coast to roughly the boundary of modern Somalia. However, the African boundaries of the Ottoman Empire at this time were mostly a polite fiction, and Egypt ...


3

When people owe more money than have, they have to make specific excuses from where the funds will originate for any new expenditures. Peter drew money from poll taxes and land taxes, but those monies were heavily claimed by various creditors and entities, such as the army. Since such money comes from the people, they demand satisfaction for its use. The ...


3

This will be a poor answer because I cannot locate my sources. Several years ago the Colonial Williamsburg podcast did a series of episodes on slavery and indentured servitude. One of the inflection points was Bacon's rebellion; after Bacon's rebellion there was a shift away from indentured servitude and towards stricter forms of slavery. Cultural, legal ...


2

To us, the Sedition Act may seem unthinkably contrary to American values. It did not seem this way to Federalists, so it should be no surprise that the Federalist majorities supported these bills. In fact, the Sedition Act seemed to many to be a liberal law: Ironically, the Sedition Act was actually a liberalization of the common law of seditious libel ...


2

George Washington had in total about 300 slaves at the height of his slave-owning career, but only about 150 were directly his, the others being indirectly his since they were acquired through family connections and so on. I think Martha Washington brought many or maybe most of them to the marriage--a lot of George's wealth (land, etc.) came from marrying ...


2

For the most part they borrowed the money. A lot of the money was borrowed from France and Holland who were both eager to make trouble for the British. For example, in June of 1787 John Adams borrowed 1 million guilders from Holland on behalf of the Congress. The congress also issued a lot of domestic debt, notably bonds they called "loan-office ...


2

This list of medieval prices indicates the price of a draught horse in the 13th century to be between 10s and 20s,, while this estimate of global inflation shows prices in 1750 being 8 or 9 times what they were 500 years earlier. I note that the steady inflation from the early modern era is due to the influx of American silver into the European economy by ...


2

While investigating a different part of the French revolution, I came to the following conclusion: Until October 6, 1789, the National Constituent Assembly met in the Hôtel des Menus Plaisirs, Versailles. October 6, 1789 and onwards, the National Constituent Assembly met in Salle du Manège, Paris. Therefore they met in the Hôtel des Menus Plaisirs on ...


2

Another good reason is that a shield does not protect you against firearm. A wooden shield is easily penetrated, an iron shield would be too heavy, and modern materials like aluminium were not available. EDIT. A shield mostly protects from bow arrows and to some extent from a sword blow. But even the earliest improved bows (Greek gastraphetes and medieval ...


2

I'm not sure anyone knows for sure, but the prime contenders seem to be this landscape with a man getting a shoe shine in the background from 1838 and this self portrait of Robert Cornelius from 1839.


1

According to the OP's own link, "Britain began military preparations in late 1792 and declared that war was inevitable unless France gave up its conquests, notwithstanding French assurances they would not attack Holland or annex the Low Countries." France felt that she needed the outposts that she had captured in (modern) Belgium to further her Revolution. ...


1

This refers to the French pound, the livre. French money was in common use in Germany, Italy and many other places during the 1700s. The livre was worth about $12 - $25. There were 24 silver livres in a Louis, which was the gold coin.


1

Performance on the battlefield is often about tactical organisation and method, rather than equipment and individual skill. Musketry was on the whole massively ineffective. Prussia had better tactical organisation during the Frederick the Great Period, but relatively short lived, The French were generally better after that. I know Napoleonic period is ...


1

This site implies that the redcoat was given a higher allowance of live ball shot than other nation's soldiers, however the source is not state. An Osprey book confirms the figures for the British army though, although there is no information provided for the state of the other armies.


1

The English army under Marlborough in the War of the Spanish Secession was of very high quality (1704-1714) and brought Louis XIV to the brink of ruin. The march from the Netherlands to Bavaria to meet the French at Blenheim was a masterstroke of marching and logistics, and they destroyed the army they met in battle. Probably the major reason why is that ...



Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible