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When people owe more money than have, they have to make specific excuses from where the funds will originate for any new expenditures. Peter drew money from poll taxes and land taxes, but those monies were heavily claimed by various creditors and entities, such as the army. Since such money comes from the people, they demand satisfaction for its use. The ...


Note that for the time period of interest there was no single German state, as we are talking not only long before the German unification of the mid Nineteenth Century but also well before the simplification of German states that occurred during the Napoleonic period. Consequently: Up to that time [1871] several dozen independent German States and ...


This refers to the French pound, the livre. French money was in common use in Germany, Italy and many other places during the 1700s. The livre was worth about $12 - $25. There were 24 silver livres in a Louis, which was the gold coin.


Topographic bureaus often used to work late at night. There are two reasons for this. One is that they needed to make nighttime observations of the weather and stars. The other is that military attacks and movements often occur at dawn. The bureau is needed to make plans for any movements so it is made to operate at a convenient time for that purpose.


A modern IT department typically requires its junior members to perform more on-call off-hour shifts than senior members, because the senior members need the face time with other departments that work regular shifts. Although the work performed by the Topographical office may not have been time critical, the time of arriving couriers most certainly would ...


The Cabinet Historique et topographique militaire was created by a decree the 28th August 1794. The decree goes in detail about the work and the organization to the point of naming who does what. A second decree (16/06/1795) has also elements of organization. The decrees don't mention office hours. The work done by the bureau in support of the armies was ...

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