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17

The Arab-Israeli conflict didn't start in 1948, it has a long history and was particularly intensified after the British government promised Palestine both to its Arab and Jewish population in the course of World War I. The first armed conflict is apparently assumed to be the Battle of Tel Hai in 1920. As a result, while Israel didn't exist before 1948 ...


17

In 1948, the Arabs attacked first. A few hours after Israel became an independent country, most of the Arab countries of the region invaded. But that's just the 1948 answer. Local Arab and Jewish militia forces had been clashing for years. A few months earlier (in 1947) bombings and shootings had increased to the level of a civil war. Jews were being ...


10

Summary Nothing is known beyond the official drive the Jews into the Sea rhetoric, and nothing definitive will probably be known. Nothing is Known Most countries do not publish their unfulfilled plans, and, even when they do, there is no good way to ascertain their authenticity. This is especially true for the Arab states in question, which were at the ...


9

Decided to do some research to try to provide an answer to this question. I found three documented cases where an Arab leader used the term "Drive Jews into the sea" or talked about large scale massacre. I also mention a court case that seems to indicate that Nasser never used that term himself, nor did any other Arab leader make genocidal statements prior ...


8

The salaries stopped as soon as Flensburg government was dissolved. The officials and technical personnel went on with their lives - found other jobs, went home or emigrated. The buildings laid fallow (the occupying powers being jointly responsible for their maintenance) until the Bundesrepublik & DDR were proclaimed in 1949, at what time they were ...


8

As a matter of fact, the 1948 war actually started on November 30th, 1947 - the day after the UN Partition Resolution, as the Arabs vowed not to accept it. The first phase of the war pitted Palestine Arab irregular warbands against Jewish paramilitary formations - the mainstream Haganah, the more nationalist Irgun, and the really really radical Lehi. The ...


6

Fascinating question. Thank you for your comment on my first guess/answer, @Lohoris, it caused me to keep digging. Revised answer: I found pictures of German bank notes from the 1940s that do include the Nazi swastika and the swastika/eagle. For example, the "XX RARE CRISP UNCIRC WW2 NAZI BILL w SWASTIKAS 1 HUGE" has a large faint black swastika in the ...


5

As always, the uniform would differ from one school to another school. But in the Showa period (1920s-1985) school uniforms is highly characterized by a strong influence from the military - especially the navy. Japan had been in rigorous military transformation since the start of Meiji period (1868), and it is reflected in the education system it produced - ...


5

I think the loss of British Empire about that time had something to do with that. If you have fiat currency, valued primarily on the perception of your total assets, and you loose a large portion of those assets, you'd better voluntarily adjust your exchange rate or face devaluation due to loss of trust in your currency by other players.


3

This is a fascinating question. There are short, simple answers: The great devaluation of 1949 - 30% Post war, Britain was heavily indebted to the USA. Despite a soft loan agreement with repayments over fifty years, the pound remained once again under intense pressure In 1949 Stafford Cripps devalued the pound by over 30%, giving a rate of $2.80 ...


3

Wearers of the Zoot suit were not really "hip" (in the usual sense of the word). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoot_suit They were mainly Latinos and African-Americans, who wore them as a protest against oppression, rather than as a cultural statement, although some elements of jazz, slang, and "lifestyle" issues accompanied them. With the onset of World ...


2

Yes, it is a common practice to sell daughters [and sometimes, wives]. It is widely practiced at least until the mid of Showa period (1950s) so I think it is safe to make it as a major plot line in 1930s-1940s Japan. In the Edo period (1603-1868) the practice is extremely rampant both in urban and rural areas, and it is considered normal as it is the ...


2

The currency you posted is from an occupied territory, see the related wikipedia link. If you read carefully, it says: Reichskreditkassen on the bottom, Nazi Germany issued these notes in occupied territories which weren't considered to the Reich's territory. Note that these notes had completely different rules than real Reichsmarks, for example they were ...


2

What Arab plans can be inferred from three classes of sources: (1) Pre-war statements to the Arab population with promises that all would share in the booty of Jewish property won by the Arab Legion armies, (2) changes in Ottoman land ownership laws following Jordan's annexation of the West Bank and East Jerusalem Here are some statements from Arab books and ...


2

See PBS.org's section on the show American Experience for this article: The Works Progress Administration (WPA). Under the direction of Harry Hopkins, an enthusiastic ex-social worker who had come from modest means, the WPA would spend more than $11 million in employment relief before it was canceled in 1943. The work relief program was more ...


1

As you know, the Federal Art Project was a part of the WPA during the Great Depression. Quoting Wikipedia: The FAP's primary goals were to employ out-of-work artists and to provide art for non-federal government buildings: schools, hospitals, libraries, etc. The work was divided into art production, art instruction and art research. The primary output of ...


1

Sayo Masuda was sold to a geisha house to be an onsen geisha to pay for her father's medical treatment. Geishas are not the same as prostitutes, but her job was a sexualized one. I haven't read her book, but the Wikipedia summary mentions that her virginity was sold off five times while she was an onsen geisha.


1

There is a difference in Wikipedia between "hip" and "hipster" but I suspect that would be cleared up with an edit. "Hip" means "in the know" as in part of a sub-culture. The definition of "hipster" as used in the 40's as a jazz aficionado and etceteras (as someone above has posted) would have been the use within the jazz community and there were certainly ...



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