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10

First, according to the 1860 Census, there were 3,526,195 free men, aged 20-39 in the states that would not secede. 3,475,987 of these men were white. Second, according to the National Parks Service, 2,672,341 men enlisted in the Union Army, 2,489,836 of which were white. Around 67.8% of enlisted soliders were between the ages of 20-39. To estimate ...


8

The percentage of Americans traveling overseas doubled between 1860 and 1900, but overseas tourism was still very rare at the end of the century (only .16% of the population per annum). Americans in 2009 were around 10 times as likely to visit Europe as were Americans in 1900. The Historical Statistics of the United States records how many Americans were ...


5

A Russian fashion of that period is best documented in paintings of Боровиковский (active in 1790 - 1810). A Google query brings much more images.


3

France was the (potential) ally most immediately at hand. Piedmont had been allied with France (and England) in the Crimean War against Russia, and while England could not provide immediate help, France could. With the benefit of hindsight, one could see that Prussia would have made a more reliable ally in 1866. But Prussia and Austria were allies as late ...


3

The War of 1812 had six official endings: one for at land and five for at sea. The Treaty of Ghent states: "All hostilities both by sea and land shall cease as soon as this Treaty shall have been ratified by both parties as hereinafter mentioned." The American Senate ratified the treaty on February 16th, 1815, making this the earliest defensible date for the ...


3

Your premise is wrong. The statement, "Based on this question and an answer, it appears that although almost all southern white men of draft age were in the military during the Civil War." is untrue. The relevant "evidence" from the question is: "In my geneology research, I can assume with some certainty that if a white southern family had sons born ...


2

You need to research George Cayley who worked out the principles of modern aircraft in the first decades of the 19th Century, and flew heavier than air gliders by mid century. But that should not detract from the real achievements of the Wright Brothers in constructing prototypes of practical heavier than air flying machines. Heavier than air flight by the ...


2

I found another reference, take a look at the case of Germany. Gundalach, H. (2006). Psychology as science and as discipline: the case of Germany. Physis. Revista Internazionale di Storia della Scienza, 16, 61-89 I will not take the risk of a translation, but be happy it is in English. In this paper Gundalach made in important preliminary ...


1

I suppose that you can trust Soviet movies on War and Peace. Unlike the US movies they show the clothing correctly. Especially the War and peace by S. Bondarchuk. They employed professional historians as consultants and had an enormous (by the Western standards) budget. I suppose that women really followed the French fashion, but most men wore military ...


1

In 1861, Wendell Phillips used this line, but he was quoting William Seward, not Lincoln.* Seward used this line in his famous "Irrepressible Conflict" (full text here) speech of 1858. Seward was ardently anti-slavery, but also doubted the federal government had the legal power to mandate abolition. He therefore argued that the triumph of free labor over ...



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