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14

I don't know about London to Nottingham in particular, but the fastest mail was transported on dedicated mail coaches. These saw improvements in speed thanks to better roads... The following is from Her Majesty's Mails, William Lewins, (London, 1865), pg 145 Most of the post-roads were macadamized before the year 1820, and it was then that the ...


13

It was somewhat more complicated. According to Wikipedia France conquered Madagaskar in 1895 and sent the royal family into exile on Réunion Island and to Algeria. (Wikipedia, "Madagaskar", chapter French Colonization). After this an uprising started against the French rule. So this prince was apparently executed as a rebel. Some more detail and ...


9

Initially, Japanese observers thought the Taiping Rebellion was a nationalist revolt by Ming China loyalists. This perception was encouraged by for instance the rebel slogan "Destroy Manchuria, Revive Han China (滅満興漢)". Thus, Japan believed the rebellion to be an attempt by the subjugated Han Chinese natives to free themselves form their Manchurian overlords....


9

If the restriction was applicable only to Lethbridge and not the surrounding communities, then any official action would have been a community by-law or ordinance. But according to Wikipedia, Lethbridge was not incorporated as a town until November 29, 1890, and only became a city on May 9, 1906. That leaves the possibility of corporate discrimination or ...


8

"Early-to-middle 19s century" is a bad time interval for this question, because it is evident that dramatic changes occured DURING this period, with the introduction of trains. It is not surprising that the speed of delivery depended on the destination. Within (greater) London it was possible to exchange several messages in one day. For delivery times to ...


8

Bookshops were certainly becoming more common in Victorian England. In fact, the entire printed world exploded in the 19th century. Most of it was concentrated in London, which by 1860 housed 812 booksellers, of whom 211 were also publishers.1 Edinburgh, the Scottish capital, was home to another 120 booksellers, with 30 also publishing. In contrast, the ...


8

The reason for the re-emergence of the ram in the mid-1800s is essentially a technological one. The introduction of the nautical steam engine gave ships a reliable source of power and the ability to move in any direction, and the introduction of armor-plating gave them greater weight (and therefore momentum), structural strength and protection. During the ...


8

From Wikipedia's reference desk (originally discussing moving images): On the German wikipedia, we had a fascinating discussion about the earliest born person of whom a photograph exists. We managed to go back to a birth date of around 1746 Skimming the German discussion, it seems the winner there was Hannah Stilley Gorbey, an elderly American lady ...


8

The Swabian princes were "overthrown" in the Revolution of 1848 and forced by democratic forces to accept constitutional monarchies. When they couldn't get along with the democrats, they turned to the Prussians for military help to restore "order." Prussia was by far the most militaristic power in Germany and it had interests in protecting their Rhine ...


7

What was the reason of C-shaped bows in 19th century and WW1? Was it the same as a ram in ancient galleys? Why did everybody expect to ram enemy's ship? Were there any successful attempts in the age of heavy naval artillery? It actually depends on which ship you are talking about from that era. In the British naval world the HMS Dreadnought actually ...


6

There is a very good article written in 1999 discussing in detail the pros and cons of Kosminski as a suspect. The article is very long, so I have included a few excerpts from casebook.org: In assessing the status of Kosminski as a suspect we are left with this to judge its strength. Sir Robert Anderson, whose main case seems to rest upon the ...


6

There is a terrific site, Legends Of America. It goes into pretty good detail about the history of the Old West, including noted people and vices. In its discussion about the real Gem Saloon of Deadwood, South Dakota, owned and operated by Al Swearengen (made famous in HBO's Deadwood), it mentions that In the front of the theater were a bar and many ...


6

Until recently (by historical standards, anyway) a passport or passports was just another term for safe-conduct papers. Oftentimes it was just a sheet of paper written, signed and stamped by someone in authority, saying that such-and-such (sometimes just "the bearer of this") could pass through some kind of check-point. Now and then a plus-one would be ...


5

Parents would wait for the kids to fall asleep before intercourse and try to do it quietly. If a kid would wake up, s/he would usually not understand what was happening. PS. "sex usually in private" is one of the very long list of "human universals" in the appendix to Pinker's "The Language Instinct" (yes, I know he was citing someone else). PPS. This is ...


4

According to this website http://www.artofmanliness.com/2010/03/30/famous-duels-from-american-history/ duels were common among politicians. Longtime political opponents almost expected duels, for there was no way that constant opposition to a man’s political career could leave his personal identity unaffected. - Joanne B. Freeman, in Affairs of ...


4

There were four main methods of supplying troops during the Napoleonic period; (1) The individual soldiers would be issued with rations that they carried in their knapsack. Enough for about two weeks. This was often in the form of biscuits. (2) Cattle or other animals were herded along and slaughtered along the way but these increased the grazing ...


4

Maria Celesta is translated from the Latin as Heavenly Mary. This could mean a woman's name in a Catholic country or Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ. In Catholic countries, naming ships this was was quite common. Certainly they would not name a ship in honor of Galileo's daughter.


4

I won't pretend that this is a comprehensive answer (or close to one) but I can offer some expenditure figures for Great Britain for the period 1803-1815. These are taken from The Foundations of British Maritime Ascendancy: Resources, Logistics and the State 1755-1815, Roger Morriss (Cambridge UP, 2011) which in turn took them from Abstract of British ...


3

It seems that Americans were somewhat ambivalent about dueling. Many upper-class people participated in duels, but they were also considered an uncivilized practice. For instance, by the time Aaron Burr killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel, public opinion was largely against duels. See this article: http://ultimatehistoryproject.com/dueling.html His duel ...


3

Western nineteenth-century saloons were traditionally identified as single bit or two bit saloons: i.e. they either charged a single bit (12.5 cents) for a beer, a glass of whiskey, or a cigar; or they charged twice that amount - 25 cents for each. Customers at a single bit establishment could pay with a quarter, and they would receive a "short bit" - or a ...


3

Well, I can't really put it better than the current wording on the Missouri Compromise Wikipedia page: Although already superseded by the Kansas–Nebraska Act, the Supreme Court indicated that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional in the 1857 Dred Scott v. Sandford ruling. Now to get a bit more technical, K-N wasn't a 100% straight repeal. ...


3

You are asking about four different commodities: Cotton: the West Indies was never an important source of cotton. Currently Barbados has a grand total of 214 acres of cotton under cultivation. That would be the tiniest of a one family farm in the United States. In 1902 there were 1200 acres under cultivation in Barbados, a microscopic amount. In 1800 there ...


2

During the Napoleonic period cossacks were generally not regarded as "battle cavalry" and rarely did much on the battlefield. Though is rough hierarchy of cavalry weight hussars, dragoons, cuirassier, there are many examples of lighter cavalry overthrowing heavier cavalry. However there is vast range of other tasks required of cavalry in addition to ...


2

Drennon's answer is incorrect. Montalembert's writings had nothing to do with Tyrannicide. John Stuart Mill's reference is to two trials that took place back-to-back in England in 1858. Paraphrasing from the legal accounts: Queen versus Truelove. Indictment found at the Central Criminal Court and removed into the Court of Queen's Bench by certiorari, ...


2

The hispanic concept does not predate the 1980s. It was constructed in the 70s by bureacrats and activist groups and made official in 1980. Before then, people of Spanish speaking origin were various different nationality groups that were unrelated. They were classified by their nationality and their race. Most were considered white.


2

The whole discussion fails to point out that there were also differences from the sources of immigration inside Italy. Most immigrants to the US were immigrants from southern Italy, which began to industrialize later. In Brazil, most immigrants were from northern Italy, which was industrializing earlier. Veneto, Trentino, Lombardia, etc. There was also a ...


2

For what it's worth, the Wikipedia article on inverted bows notes that Inverted bows maximize the length of waterline and hence the hull speed. Inverted bows were popular on battleships and large cruisers in the early 20th century. They fell out of favour, as they were very wet on high speeds and heavy seas, but have made a comeback on modern ship design. ...


2

Almost nobody thought the Earth was flat by the 19th century. Even as early as Columbus, the argument was not that the Earth was round, but that it was small enough to go to India from Spain (it wasn't). The ancient Greek mathematician Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth with relatively good accuracy i.e. not flat. Columbus used ...


2

I have been doing a study of military service in Hawkins County, TN. That is in East Tennessee, where sentiments were divided about the War. But in that county, a much lower percentage of men served than in the rest of the South. I started with the 1860 census and identified every white male between 14 and 45--these were the men who would have been in the 18 ...


2

In the very early 1900s in Alaska (gold rush era), "real" liquor went for about 25 cents a shot while homemade "hooch" (this was originally an Alaskan word for home-brewed liquor, from the Chinook Jargon) went for as little as 40 cents a gallon! The latter bordered on toxic*, however. (A good reference for this is Boom and Bust in the Alaska Goldfields, by ...



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