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12

I believe the first "programmable" devices in common industrial use were the big industrial power looms in England in the late 18th and early 19th century. The Jacquard loom in 1801 was the first to use punched-cards for its programming. Way over in Ukraine, Russian Semen Korasakov saw the potential of these cards for information storage and retrieval, and ...


9

This is a rough translation (work in progress). Notice that the text is rhymed, and some of it (I find ) it is illegible. 2 Norway and Sweden \\ Loving to make progress these nations both \\ they advance in the art of lazy bones 3 Finland \\ Even among bears the priestly tail \\ Attempts to place herself and summon factions \\ But only those ...


9

The situation is complex. While the pike-or-equivalent must be of a sufficient length and density to be effective against cavalry, the longer the weapon the more difficult it is to adjust formation and facing. Cavalry's most effective weapon on the battlefield is its speed. A mass of spearmen facing one direction are easily flanked and broken up, and then ...


7

He believed that once we were free from British rule, we should no longer use British spellings. See NOAH WEBSTER & HIS WORDS, Houghton Mifflin Books for Children, 2012. It won the Golden Kite award for best NF book of 2012 in the U.S. It's for children, but packed with fascinating information on this most interesting of men. He talked with B. Franklin, ...


7

In case of India: From 1773 to 1858, the British administrative head in India was called Governor General and was selected by the Court of Directors of the East India Company, to whom he was responsible. After the 1857 Uprising, the government of India was transferred from the East India Company to the Crown. And "Viceroy" was added to the title of the ...


7

British Major General Robert Ross landed his brigade on 18 August 1814 at Benedict, Maryland, less than 40 miles (65 km) from Washington DC. The Royal Navy had blockaded Chesapeake Bay since spring 1813, and the US had built the Chesapeake Bay Flotilla for protection; this was trapped in the Patuxent River, enabling the British to land. The only ...


7

First, Jackson was within his rights. My recollection (of a piece I read years ago) was that when Jackson's pistol misfired, it was Dickinson's second who forced Dickinson to stand for Jackson's second shot, which Jackson was allowed, under the rules. My further understanding is that both Dickinson and Jackson violated the "unwritten" rules; that in a duel, ...


7

- How were the borders of small European principalities maintained or secured? They weren't, really. Even accurate maps didn't exist until sometime in the late 18th century when the Longitude Problem was solved. However, as all of these little sovereignties were the personal possession of their sovereign, this did not affect the common people in their ...


7

The concept of "Ownership" as in the right to sell (dispose) was a concept from the west that did not exist in India before the arrival of the Europeans. Land was plentiful, so there was no need to buy land. The "tenant" or cultivator had rights, but paid taxes to the crown. The king/monarch could evict the cultivator for not paying taxes. But the land that ...


6

No major European country stayed neutral (for the whole time of Napoleonic wars). The Ottoman Empire (partly placed in Europe, although not traditionally considered a European country) possibly comes closest. But it was by no means the boring Swiss-style neutrality, so I would review the Napoleon's Egyptian campaign, the Russo-Ottoman War of 1806-1812, and ...


6

I just performed some Google search that gave me the map of Europe during Napoleonic wars. Here goes the reproduction from Wikipedia: So, in Europe, in 1812, there were the following countries: Great Britain - fought Portugal - fought Spain - fought Papal States - fought Kingdom of Naples - fought German States - if treated as a whole (Confederation of ...


6

The League of the Sublime and Perfect Masters (Sublime Perfect Masters / Society of Perfect Sublime Masters) was a conspiratorial and revolutionary society, one of the Carbonari groups. It was created in 1818 by Filippo Buonarroti and it operated as a Masonic Lodge. Its headquarters were in Turin and its immediate goal was independence from Austria. Its ...


6

The French Revolution occurred from 1789 to 1799. The period covered by Les Miserable which is the June Rebellion of 1832. Articles on the June Rebellion indicate the restored king was Louis Phillipe.


6

As noted in this article from Encylopedia Britannica 1911, the great dividing issue between Whigs and Tories through most of the 18th century was on the role of the crown in the executive of the government. The Tory position was that the King was his own "Prime Minister", a hands-on chief executive in the current American model. The Whig position was one of ...


6

This may be referring to The Magyar Struggle, from Neue Rheinische Zeitung No. 194, January 13, 1849 (emphasis mine): There is no country in Europe which does not have in some corner or other one or several ruined fragments of peoples, the remnant of a former population that was suppressed and held in bondage by the nation which later became the ...


5

Europe and East Asia didn't industrialize at the same time. In all of East Asia, probably the first country to Industrialize was Japan, and that didn't happen until the right around the beginning of the 20th century, nearly a century after the process started in Western Europe. So really you have to compare with Europe. The big advantage here was simply ...


5

A viceroy is a "vice-king" (roi is French for king). Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth II were/are female "kings," (not queens in the usual sense of wife of a king). Dominions held in the name of the king or queen (e.g. Queen Victoria was Empress of India) would be ruled by "Viceroys." Other colonies were held in the name of Britain, rather than the ruler. ...


4

With a little research: 1 Tael is equivalent with 37.5 or 33.9 or 37.8 g of silver, depends on region where it was issued. The local tael also took precedence over any central measure, so the Canton tael weighed 37.5 grams, the Convention or Shanghai tael was 33.9 g (1.09 oz troy), and the Customs or Hǎiguān (海關) tael 37.8 g (defined as 11⁄3 oz ...


4

At that time there were tons of institutions called "Notre Dame", so it is pretty hard to find. According to French Wikipedia, first communion was at age 7-8 in 1910. Not sure about before, but that might be from a école élémentaire (or the equivalent at that time). Your best bet is to find similar anchors in this list of city blasons, and check whether ...


4

I think the biggest motivation for excluding women as successors is to limit the number of potential heirs and to concentrate power for the reigning sovereign. Furthermore the reasons against doing so are weak. Japanese Empresses First, a background of Japanese empresses. From Wikipedia: Empress Suiko (554–628), r. 593–628—first ruling empress Empress ...


4

While I can't answer for the reason for a C-Shaped bow in the 19th Century and WW1 - I can provide you with an example of a successful ramming attack in WW1. HMS Dreadnought(Wiki link) rammed and sunk the German submarine U29 on the 18th March 1915. As a side note, I know that there was such a thing as a Torpedo ram trialled around WW1 as a method of ...


4

I will use this definition of a Duel because it goes into the cause for dueling: Dueling for honor is not the same as feuding, vendettas, brawls, jousts, or tournaments. It is “a fight between two or several individuals (but always equal numbers on either side), equally armed, for the purpose of proving either the truth of a disputed question or ...


4

there are a number of reasons for the appearance of the ram bow in the 19th century. The ram bow is a more natural bow form for tumblehome hull forms. Tumblehome was used on most ships during this period, hence the proliferation of the bow type. shot deflection was not a major concern when adopting this form as the bow section is not an easy target, or a ...


4

The first problem is that you're reading a textbook. Textbooks are not ways in which historical research is reported; they're primarily teaching tools and are highly criticised and considered bad for teaching in some systems. Your textbook gives us some clues about how the authors are using "class," a complex theoretical tool. as Marx ...


3

I can't source this at all but I believe that early armor-plated ships were shaped this way after the design of the ACW-era ironclads like the Merrimack and the Monitor. The idea was to present the enemy with convex angles which cannonballs would bounce off of at oblique angles rather than concave ones that would take the brunt of the blow. As time went by, ...


3

I think if there would be some Italian guy here and could translate all the sentences, it would be easier. Here's my try. In Algeria the Arab man represents French problems there. Of course Russia is bad so it is represented as an ugly butcher. Poland is divided by three states (notice chains). There are fightings in Balkans. The man kicking is probably ...


3

It is true that Sakamoto Ryōma died young, and his heroic role is perhaps overly dramatized today (especially the famous story of his aborted assasination attempt of Katsu Kaishū), but his considerable reputation as one of the most important figures in bringing down the Tokugawa is not without merit. The two most important moments where he, as an individual, ...


3

Before Prohibition, in the USA public social drinking tended to be carried out in saloons. These were places where it was not socially acceptible for women to be. Thus the only women you would generally find in a saloon were...non-socially acceptible women. Entertainers, prostitutes, etc. As a result, alcoholisim was viewed as an almost entirely male ...


3

Nothing. Absolutely nothing. EDIT: I have asked an older student and before the 1970s there was in fact a so-called "Hörergeld" "listener money" which was in the range of 100-200 Mark (comparable to 30-45 $) for half a year. The interesting thing is that is was not for the university, but for the professor, so while there was charging, the answer is still ...



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