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9

The situation is complex. While the pike-or-equivalent must be of a sufficient length and density to be effective against cavalry, the longer the weapon the more difficult it is to adjust formation and facing. Cavalry's most effective weapon on the battlefield is its speed. A mass of spearmen facing one direction are easily flanked and broken up, and then ...


8

This may be referring to The Magyar Struggle, from Neue Rheinische Zeitung No. 194, January 13, 1849 (emphasis mine): There is no country in Europe which does not have in some corner or other one or several ruined fragments of peoples, the remnant of a former population that was suppressed and held in bondage by the nation which later became the ...


8

British Major General Robert Ross landed his brigade on 18 August 1814 at Benedict, Maryland, less than 40 miles (65 km) from Washington DC. The Royal Navy had blockaded Chesapeake Bay since spring 1813, and the US had built the Chesapeake Bay Flotilla for protection; this was trapped in the Patuxent River, enabling the British to land. The only ...


7

The concept of "Ownership" as in the right to sell (dispose) was a concept from the west that did not exist in India before the arrival of the Europeans. Land was plentiful, so there was no need to buy land. The "tenant" or cultivator had rights, but paid taxes to the crown. The king/monarch could evict the cultivator for not paying taxes. But the land that ...


7

As noted in this article from Encylopedia Britannica 1911, the great dividing issue between Whigs and Tories through most of the 18th century was on the role of the crown in the executive of the government. The Tory position was that the King was his own "Prime Minister", a hands-on chief executive in the current American model. The Whig position was one of ...


7

- How were the borders of small European principalities maintained or secured? They weren't, really. Even accurate maps didn't exist until sometime in the late 18th century when the Longitude Problem was solved. However, as all of these little sovereignties were the personal possession of their sovereign, this did not affect the common people in their ...


7

First, Jackson was within his rights. My recollection (of a piece I read years ago) was that when Jackson's pistol misfired, it was Dickinson's second who forced Dickinson to stand for Jackson's second shot, which Jackson was allowed, under the rules. My further understanding is that both Dickinson and Jackson violated the "unwritten" rules; that in a duel, ...


6

It appears so. See The Unreformed House of Commons: Parliamentary Representation before 1832 (1903), by Edward Porritt, for a discussion on this. On page 357-358: "It was in this period when, as the North correspondence shows, a nomination to a seat fetched from two thousand five hundred to three thousand pounds, that seats were first advertised for ...


6

There wasn't really any standardised design, as you can see from the variations in the images already shown. This is in part because many barracks would be just repurposed other buildings, and of course building styles would vary over time and space as well. You'd get to see thus the same variety as in any other type of building, but likely with a tendency ...


5

The first problem is that you're reading a textbook. Textbooks are not ways in which historical research is reported; they're primarily teaching tools and are highly criticised and considered bad for teaching in some systems. Your textbook gives us some clues about how the authors are using "class," a complex theoretical tool. as Marx ...


5

It seems the key word I should've been looking for is "Christian Slavery". E.g. this NYT article says: Southern Christians believed that the Bible imposed on masters a host of obligations to their slaves. Most fundamentally, masters were to view slaves as fully members of their own households and as fellow brothers and sisters in the Lord. Therefore, as ...


4

There isn't, and never has been, a French equivalent of the Victorian Era in the sense of moral rigidity and the dominance of the bourgeoisie. As evidence I submit the concept of the French Postcard (warning - adult content beyond link) which nearly every Victorian gentleman traveling on the Continent would send to his male friends for their amusement. The ...


4

there are a number of reasons for the appearance of the ram bow in the 19th century. The ram bow is a more natural bow form for tumblehome hull forms. Tumblehome was used on most ships during this period, hence the proliferation of the bow type. shot deflection was not a major concern when adopting this form as the bow section is not an easy target, or a ...


4

I think the biggest motivation for excluding women as successors is to limit the number of potential heirs and to concentrate power for the reigning sovereign. Furthermore the reasons against doing so are weak. Japanese Empresses First, a background of Japanese empresses. From Wikipedia: Empress Suiko (554–628), r. 593–628—first ruling empress Empress ...


4

Before Prohibition, in the USA public social drinking tended to be carried out in saloons. These were places where it was not socially acceptible for women to be. Thus the only women you would generally find in a saloon were...non-socially acceptible women. Entertainers, prostitutes, etc. As a result, alcoholisim was viewed as an almost entirely male ...


4

The British Army in the 18th century was commonly seen as disciplined, regimented and harsh. Camp life was dirty and cramped with the potential for a rapid spread of disease, and punishments could be anything from a flogging to a death sentence. Yet, many men volunteered to join the army, to escape the bleak conditions of life in the cities, for a chance to ...


3

Nothing. Absolutely nothing. EDIT: I have asked an older student and before the 1970s there was in fact a so-called "Hörergeld" "listener money" which was in the range of 100-200 Mark (comparable to 30-45 $) for half a year. The interesting thing is that is was not for the university, but for the professor, so while there was charging, the answer is still ...


3

Plutarch, writing about 100 AD, in his "Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans" has a commentary about the Roman Cato the Elder who recommended working slaves hard and selling them off when they became unable to work. He critiques this as being inhumane and immoral, saying that slaves should be cared for after their life of service. So humanizing slavery ...


2

Many of the technologies that first saw large-scale action (on the North American continent at least) in the American Civil War - rifled artillery, breech-loading repeating rifles, Gatling guns, iron-clads (both naval and rail) - were pre-existing and simply awaiting a war in which to participate. To my mind the true innovations are the changes in military ...


2

Courtesy of Billy Joel's Uptown Girl: I'm gonna try for an uptown girl She's been living in her white bread world As long as anyone with hot blood can And now she's looking for a downtown man That's what I am A white bread girl is of course a pampered suburban princess, while the Billy Joel's downtown man protagonist is clearly, by way of contrast, ...


2

In the French Army of Napoleon size was not the critical qualifier for being a grenadier - experience and bravery was. Certainly diminutive size would disqualify a soldier from being eligible for the grenadier company of his battalion (but in turn making him eligible for the voltigeur company), but average size was sufficient (and a moustache was de rigeur). ...


2

OK, good lord this answer stretched on, apologies for my total lack of brevity. In many ways the American Civil War was the first war of the industrial age, and most of the major innovations spring from that. I will focus on the three most important innovations and the fallout from those, in order of least to most significant. Steam powered warships and ...


2

I'm no historian, so I'm afraid that all I have to offer is based on anecdotal evidence rather than comprehensive research. In a 1835 book of legal advice to renters and homeowners (F. Locquin, Petit Code des locataires et des locataires et des propriétaires. Paris, 1835.), there are references to moving days (“Des époques de l'emménagement”, p. 48ff.). ...


2

This is part of the movie "The Soviet story", title is "Marks and Engels about Serbs". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZS4xOYFHMGw According to this movie the answer to question is yes, Engels did call for the extermination of Basques and Serbs.


2

Generally, I believe the best place to find old copies of city newspapers is in the archives of the city in question's Public Library. I know mine has every back issue of the two major local papers (at one time we had two) on microfiche, and perhaps in more modern forms now as well. So I'd think the best place to look would be the Richmond Public Library. ...


2

In an article on the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, PBS offers the following estimate: At the time of the treaty, approximately 80,000 Mexicans lived in the ceded territory, which comprised only about 4 percent of Mexico’s population. PBS


2

Starting in 1776 and continuing through the end (!) of the Civil War, there was a gradual evolution in the institution of slavery in the US. Some of the changes could possibly be described as making slavery more "humane," although that's not necessarily the word I'd use. Slave marriages were not legally recognized, and were initially discouraged. But when ...


1

The main thing that the Central American Republic going for it was its fear of Mexico. Otherwise, the countries had rather little in common. The fear of Mexico diminished in the late 1830s, after Santa Anna was defeated by the Texans in the (1836) War of Independence. It might not be an accident that the Central American Republic started to dissolve around ...


1

To my ear the German term Biedermeier has a somewhat similar connotation. It denotes the period between 1815 and 1848 and includes important cultural characteristics. And the French term Restauration (period between 1815 and 1830) rings somewhat similar to Biedermeier, although this term seems to imply much less about specific culture. So Restauration is ...


1

An alliance with the Sardinia-Piedmont was a good way to weaken the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and to win an potentially strong ally on the Alpine south-east border of France, betting on the unification of the Italian peninsula by the kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont. A weak Sardinia-Piedmont Kingdom meant that France could be threatened by an invasion from the ...



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