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8

They were paid a regular salary and given an "expense account" of sorts. At least, the higher ranking representatives of the United States were. While this was probably not a very adequate amount, American ministers were definitely not expected to pay for everything out of their own pockets. Early United States ambassadors were paid around $2,500, while ...


8

Tyler Durden's comment does a great job with the first two parts of your question. This answer addresses when playgrounds began to look like the things we have today. Short Answer: The modern American playground was championed by progressives in the 1880s-1890s; the most common playground equipment was all invented by the 1920s; and New Deal money made ...


5

Forever? Every civilization makes it a priority to know who is who and keep out the unwanted people. In the Book of Judges an incident is described from 3000 years ago whereby a shibboleth is used to identify aliens. According to the Wikipedia entry on identity documents, the passports of King Henry V (15th century) were the first such documents, but various ...


2

It is difficult to make exact estimates because reliable figures from different publishers making the same book are hard to come by, especially in the case of pirated editions, which were rampant at that time. The popularity of Uncle Tom's Cabin has been somewhat exaggerated and there were many publications that compare to it. For example, if you include ...


3

My answer is that there was no such umbrella term in common use in the 1800s that corresponds directly to our "Hispanic" or "Latino" category. I think T.E.D.’s answer is correct in that people with Mexican origins were called Mexicans. And if you lived in an area where most people who have Spanish names were of Mexican descent, then residents may have ...


8

The young woman quoted likely misunderstood the real reason the windows were kept shut: to keep the mills humid. This was explained to me on a recent visit to Lowell, but I found a few published sources that match what the tour guides told me. Here's one: Work conditions in the mills were poor. To provide the humidity necessary to keep the threads from ...


6

Historians like Dunning and Phillip are writing half a century before the cliometric revolution in economic history, which has completely changed how we view this question. Fogel and Engerman's 1974 "Time on the Cross" was quite influential in showing how profitable slavery was for those who practiced it. In particular, plantations were more efficient ...


2

Nemesis was sold in 1852, and I would presume (but can't confirm) that it was sold for scrap. I can't locate any indications that it was ever re-registered though. See Warships of the World to 1900 by Lincoln P. Paine, p 115-6


0

The Nemesis was apparently involved in the Opium Wars and other small Asian wars for at least 10-15 years from 1840. Here I did see a news article from Australia about a ship named Nemesis sinking. SHIPPING DISASTERS. THE NEMESIS MISSING. SUPPOSED TO HAVE FOUNDERED. WITH ALL HANDS. DISTRESS SIGNALS MADE. OFF PORT HACKING ON ...



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