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An important aspect that seems to be neglected in many of the answers here is that while technical aspects cannot be completely dismissed, they are secondary to other concerns. To be specific, the primary weapon of heavy cavalry is its momentum, while heavy infantry (among which musketeers from 18th century onward are counted) relies on its discipline in ...


2

For a case study reference, this may be relevant. This is from Battle of Waterloo, when Ney assaulted Wellington's centre in the French cavalary charge ""Initially Milhaud's reserve cavalry corps of cuirassiers and Lefebvre-Desnoëttes' light cavalry division of the Imperial Guard, some 4,800 sabres, were committed. When these were repulsed, Kellermann's ...


1

Short answer: The bayonet wasn't really a "secondary" weapon, even though it "followed" the musket. A musket with a bayonet was approximately the same length and weight as a spear, and could function in that capacity. Except that these "spears" could also shoot. Bayonets gave musketeers a decisive advantage on open ground over other users of missile weapons ...


2

"What gave soldiers with bayonets (and muskets) their effectiveness?" I'd say the main reason they were more effective against circa-18th Century cavalry, than typical pole-armed footmen were against mounted knights, was the lighter armor of the cavalry, and the attitudes and training of the time. Medieval knights were a dedicated warrior class with heavy ...


5

At that time the trade of the United States was primarily with Britain or the Spanish main. The English trade was conducted in pounds sterling and the Spanish trade in the Spanish milled dollar. Ultimately the dollar was selected as the U.S. standard of value. The merchants themselves would have dealt primarily in bank notes, but the banks eventually would ...


8

I would say all those possibilities you listed are correct. Trade could be paid in paper money, which could then be redeemed for metal and shipped home. But even in the early 1800s, trade could be conducted on credit. Of course, under normal trading conditions, credit earned from exports was credit that could then be used to pay for imports of other goods ...


5

The quote refers to two things about Lord Acton. First, he was anything but prolific as an author: He is notorious for having rising to the heights of the historical profession without actually writing a book; the only work published in book form during his lifetime was his inaugural lecture when he became Regius professor of history at ...


-1

The only hit I could find for misattributions involving Lord Acton is for a simple statement, not an entire book. This is what is sometimes today called Acton's Law: "Power corrupts. Absolute power corrupts absolutely". Its true that isn't quite what he said. The full quote, from a letter he wrote to fellow historian Bishop Mandell Creighton in 1887 is: ...


4

None of the contemporary accounts I have read, such as that of Francis L. Hawks (1861), which is more or less the official account of the missions, make any mention of an attack of any kind. In the Hawks narrative the embassy is presented as entirely peaceful. Also, the text of the letter which Millard Fillmore gave to Perry for delivery to the Emperor ...


10

Short Answer Roughly speaking, in the early decades after 1867: ~7% became educators ~16% became public servants ~25% became corporate employees the rest became unemployed or farmers Overview Most of them actually did not do particularly well. After the Meiji Restoration, the samurai became the new shizoku class and initially received stipends from ...


4

The Panic of 1837 proved that the "cure was worse than the disease." Thus, it set the U.S. on the road to the passage of the 16th Amendment, and the establishment of the Federal Reserve some 76 years later, in 1913. The "disease" that Jackson fought was a centralized national bank along the lines of the Bank of England, advocated by banker Nicholas Biddle. ...



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