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5

This was part of the focus of Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century. He prefers to measure income inequality by looking at the share of the top decile/percentile/0.1% in the national income. In general, the story is that inequality decreased sharply throughout the Great Depression and WWII, and continued on a downward trend until the late ...


7

I know this is an old post but for some time I've wanted to revisit this topic, so I did some digging. It turns out OECD has a data table (2003. The World Economy: Historical Statistics (Paris: OECD)) that I've seen as a source in a paper from Berkeley and London School of Economics (http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/series/sfb-649-papers/2008-68/PDF/68.pdf). I'm ...


11

The Soviets did not know they were supplying the CIA, because Americans are adept at corporate shenanigans. From the book Skunk Works: A Personal Memoir of my Years at Lockheed: Our supplier, Titanium Metals Corporation, had only limited reserves of the precious alloy, so the CIA conducted a worldwide search and using third parties and dummy ...


1

One of the primary aims of the Government of India Act was to weaken the rising Indian governing class, specifically, the Congress Party. For instance, Burma was separated from India altogether, and a number of Indian provinces were subdivided for "gerrymandering purposes. The idea of having "separate but equal" electorates for the classes at the bottom was ...


1

You need to realize that the Government of India Act was passed by Britain, not India, since India was a British colony at the time. Whatever Gandhi worked out with the other Indians has no effect on what the Brits do unless they convinced them it's for better for British interests, which they didn't.


4

Because it suited British interests to do so. It seems you are wondering why the Poona Pact was reversed, but this should not be surprising. The Poona Pact was a compromise between Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi, designed to reconcile the Untouchables and the Hindus against British Imperialism. In contrast, the Government of India Act 1935 was an ...


3

This seems to be the rulers' method of "divide and rule", and largely to prevent the Congress from getting too strong: ...ensuring that the Congress could never rule alone or gain enough seats to bring down the government.. This was done by over-representing the Princes, by giving every possible minority the right to separately vote for ...


3

They symbolize the sizes of units (so if the flag represent a division with 10,000 people or an army with 200,000) On smaller maps you may also see dots or lines. .-squad ..-platoon I-Company II-Battalion III-Regiment X-Brigade XX-Division XXX-Corp XXXX-Army XXXXX-Army Group XXXXXX-Theather


3

In the case of Prussia, there is a rather original institution that was created specifically to handle (a small part) of its “inheritance”: the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation. Legally, it's a foundation created by a federal law, with funding from the federal state and the federated states. Beyond that, property would not seem to be especially ...


2

The Islamic State regularly destroys historical artefacts. Here is one from just last week. Here is another. It is widely suspected that they loot and smuggle a considerable portion of the content of the museums and historical sites that they destroy as well.


3

In the Korean War, the US air force destroyed the Gwanghwamun, which was the gates of the old Korean palace. More info: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gwanghwamun Aldo, the Yongmyongsa Temple in pyongyang was destroyed by carpet bombing. Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yongmyongsa


3

I am surprised that nobody mentions the example which is going on just now: it is in the news. The "Caliphate" destroys on purpose the ancient cultural sites in Iraq. Of course most of us do not recognize the "Caliphate" as a state, so perhaps this example does not qualify. But this only shows that the question is not well posed: what is a state?


5

Wàn Sōng Temple, China During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Imperial Japanese Army and its Chinese puppet auxiliaries set fire to the historic Wàn Sōng Temple, lit. Temple of (Ten) Thousand Pines. The temple was the largest of its kind on Mt. Pán in Ji County, near the city of Tientsin, a famous scenic area. The temple was ancient and once home to the ...


2

This occurred at least twice in the Vietnam War. I say "at least" because these are the two instances I know of, and there could well be more. Mỹ Sơn This complex of temples was built by the Cham in the 15th Century, who (I'm told) were the original inhabitants of Vietnam until who we today consider the ethnic Vietnamese invaded and took over. Cham people ...


4

During the Soviet German war (part of the WWII) both sides deliberately destroyed cultural monuments of the other side. The Germans tried to destroy the Uspenskii cathedral, a part of the Kiev Lavra. I only have a Russian language source for this, but there are some photos: http://2000.net.ua/2000/aspekty/istorija/44243 The document mentions names and ...


5

I'm reminded of the Baedeker Raids of WW2. Baron Gustav Braun von Stumm, a spokesman for the German Foreign Office, is reported to have said on 24 April 1942 (following the first attack), "We shall go out and bomb every building in Britain marked with three stars in the Baedeker Guide", a reference to the popular travel guides of that name. ...


5

In September 1914, during the first World War the famous French Reims Cathedral was hit and heavily damaged by German shell fire. Reims Cathedral is a national monument of France, not only because of its long history and architectural beauty, but also because the French kings were crowned there. As far as I know, the German troops undoubtedly aimed for the ...


6

The Monastery of Monte Cassino. Which was made worse by the facts that: even for the attacker, there were no actual reasons for it, as the Germans were (this time) civilized and did not use the monastery as part of their defenses. it worsened the situation of the attacker. Once bombed, there was no cultural reason to declare the ruins "safe ground", and so ...


9

(This is a list question with many possible answers. Mirroring the meta proposal for references I'm making this is a community wiki - please feel free to edit to add more examples.) Wàn Sōng Temple, China - Semaphore Abbey of Monte Cassino, Italy - SJuan76 Reims Cathedral, France - gdir Various actions on the Eastern Front of WWII - Fedor Nazarov Mỹ Sơn ...


0

Two instances come to mind quickly: The bombing of Rotterdam in May, 1940, accompanied with the threat to do the same to Amsterdam and Den Hague in order to coerce a quick Dutch surrender. The destruction of the World Trade Centre Twin Towers, and attempted destruction of the Pentagon, on Sept. 11, 2001. Given Al Qaida's status in 2001 as a de facto ...


-1

There were plenty of British films (if they are any good to you) which were made during the war.e.g. Went the Day well. We dive at dawn. In which we serve. The Life & Death of Colonel Blimp. A matter of Life and Death. Millions Like Us. Next of Kin. One of our aircraft is missing. The first of the few. Cottage to let. The Day will dawn ...


4

Health researchers collected data on causes of death in 114 U.S. cities during the Great Depression. Their findings confirm the impressions of many observers in the 1930s, mortality did not increase during the Great Depression: They include a table that shows trends in death rates per 100,000 population. Starvation does not appear on the list, nor does it ...


2

The United States did not experience famine conditions during the Great Depression. Consider that a major economic problem during the Depression was that there was too much food. This "excess" supply made food too cheap, which bit into farmers' profits. To address the "problem" of overproduction, the government paid farmers not to plant crops: The ...


7

I am currently reading Nehru's 'The Discovery of India' which is about Indian history as well as his experiences of Indian freedom struggle. I think you can download it legally from here. Although he has substantially praised Buddhism in the book, that is equally true about Hinduism as well. Actually, what he seems to be interested in is the sociological ...


1

Sweden was already trading with Nazi Germany. No need for Hitler to conquer it.


2

Abdul Mejid II was the last caliph. And on the contrary , to the OP's assumption, he was deposed because he was too much under influence of parties holding his strings. This New York Times article from 1924 puts light. 《Sorry, i couldn't shake $4 for the whole article》 Another closer is excerpt from a New York Times article, April 13 ,1920. Caliph was ...


1

Read this related SE Question and also the linked article. The second article seems to suggest that the Caliphate of the Ottoman Empire was already in a long and steady decline since sixteenth century which caused its downfall and not any single Caliph. The same article also suggests that a portion of the Islamic sect doesn't consider the Turkish ...



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