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What animals: Oxen The scheme: Paddle-Wheel Used for warfare: Unlikely ~ (No evidence exists) The first mention of paddle wheels as a means of propulsion comes from the 4th–5th century military treatise De Rebus Bellicis (chapter XVII) you described, where the anonymous Roman author describes an ox-driven paddle-wheel warship: "Animal power, directed ...


6

In terms of recorded history, the earliest contact that I know was in 50 B.C., when a Japanese army supposedly aborted its invasion upon hearing of the Silla king's greatness. Make of its credibility what you will... 《三國史記·新羅本紀》八年,倭人行兵,欲犯邊,聞始祖有神德,乃還。 This is recorded in the History of the Three Kingdoms, written in A.D. 1145. The same document reports ...


2

One must consider both the strength of Goguryeo and the weakness of its surrounding states. Strength of Goguryeo Goguryeo had seen severe military setbacks during the reign of Gogugwon at the hands of the Earlier Yan polity and Baekje— Gogugwon was killed in battle by Geungusu, crown prince of the latter. Geungusu failed to follow up on the victory and ...


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This mechanism would have had limited use in a naval vessel, because of the absence of a reversible gear drive. (The first such was invented by Filippo Bruneschelli during construction of the dome for Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence about 1420 AD.) Changing direction without one involved unharnessing all the oxen, reversing them on the ...



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