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15

One example would be the Amondawa who are a group of indigenous peoples of Brazil. The Amondawa are a sedentary group that utilize various forms of hunting fishing and agriculture to provide for their community, yet according to researchers the Amondawa lack an "abstract concept of time." The University of Portsmouth and the Federal University of Rondonia ...


15

These did not have indigenous alcoholic beverages, aiming to be as exhaustive as possible: Inuit (called "Eskimos" in Hornsey "Alcohol and Its Role in the Evolution of Human Society", p. 1) peoples of Tierra del Fuego (South America) (ibid) Australia (ibid) most of the natives of the North America (ibid) including Navajo (Hornsey, p. 554) including Hopi ...


14

Actually RUNNING a farm has never been considered "prestigious." But OWNING one often has been. "Farming" is connected with manual labor, sweat, etc. As such, it is not what social economists like Thorstein Veblen would consider "honorific." On the other hand, to be an owner is to be member of the landed gentry, and a member of the establishment. Farming ...


10

It may be different in different locations but it usually comes down to what Tom mentioned as the manual labor, those who work with their hands or outside do tend to lose some level of prestige in many cultures. In Europe in the Middle Ages if you worked outside you were of the lower classes, giving rise to the idea that tanned skin was a mark of those who ...


8

According to Cacao domestication I: the origin of the cacao cultivated by the Mayas, genetic evidence indicates that the cacao tree was cultivated from wild ancestors and improved over time. Mayans were pretty good at agriculture, beyond the slash and burn methods that were used by many other tribes in the Americas during the same time period. From Maya ...


8

About about 0.25 wallach was enough to support a family (so at least two adults and all they children) on a good land in Lithuanian territory at about 1600. The size of wallach was about 21.3 ha so 21 3000 square meters or 52.6 acres. Wallach itself was a norm for a relatively easy, descent life. Family was a team, and all had they specialized work roles, ...


7

In Carolingian times, the yield of grain on average soil was 2:1. For each seed planted, you harvested two. Starting with the eleventh century, an upward trend brought agricultural productivity to an average of 4:1. This meant 8-12 bushels (200-300 kg) of grain per acre. Let's just conclude that in Carolingian times, in Western Europe, an acre of land gave ...


6

What is known: Buckwheat's yield strongly depends on pollination by insects. Although it is not universally applicable, in eastern North America, honey bee seems to be the main and the most effective pollinator of buckwheat. honey bee was not native to Americas, being first bought there from Europe in early 1600s Sadly, I have no direct historical ...


6

The big difference is geographic diversity. Wheat doesn't do very well in the tropics. Rice requires tropical and semi-tropical areas where lots and lots of water are available. However, corn can be grown nearly anywhere. Corn kind of had a tough row to hoe (pardon the pun) in the Americas. It was first domesticated from the grass Tseosine in tropical areas ...


6

in the current historical view has the onset of agriculture stimulate permanent settlements, and food surplus and storage allow the onset of specialized "careers" (including priests) This is incorrect. Permanent settlements and specialized societies require large food surpluses. This is generally produced by agriculture, but can also (in rare cases) be ...


6

Although the wikipedia article notes that a major cause of the rebellion was an agrarian crisis, note that famine is often caused due to factors other than agricultural production alone. Often bad distribution, heavy taxes and low market prices for agricultural produce cause famine. While it may look like agricultural technology was in its infancy then, ...


6

What made you think they know about the protein content? Evolutionary pressures would have drove humans to develop instincts for foods that contain the nutrition we need to survive (i.e., cravings). There is also a common human preference for diversity. Those factors alone would have pushed early civilisation into cultivating multiple crops. Additionally, ...


5

The Old Chinese character for fertilisers is the same as the word as fecal matter. Thus, we cannot assume that the fertilisers mentioned in Spring and Autumn texts were actually excrement. It is known that at least in some cases, they were referring to (presumably compost) weed or grass. The earliest explicit reference of using human waste as fertilisers ...


4

One of the theories of how agriculture was invented (the most popular today, at least among archaeologists) say that the people of natufian culture grew to too big numbers during a period of good climate (younger dryas; Anubhav already explained that it's possible to get such food surplus by hunting with plenty of game) and they needed to survive while the ...


4

It highly depends on what you grew on it, where, and how many tools you had at your disposal. Generally vegetables had higher yields, but were harder to harvest. So the reason why grain became a staple food is that there was just enough place for it to be grown. Legumes were also a staple food; they provided more calories per hectare besides baring much ...


4

Corn is the most versatile of crops. Rice needs a nearly tropical climate in which to grow, and also lots of water for paddies. These conditions are present mostly in Southeast Asia. Wheat is a northern crop that does better in dry land. It grows best in Kansas, and areas to the north, and areas to the west of that state. Corn can be grown in ...


4

Farming lost it's prestige in prehistory with the growth of organized warfare. Organized farming began many thousand years before Christ in the fertile soils at the estuaries of mountain run offs and in the flood plain of rivers. Most such communities were initially organized into small scale villages with communal farming and later developed into city ...


3

The tools used were primarily the standard scythe and plow which had been around for centuries. There were some improvements, such as the mouldboard plough. These tools were made by local craftsmen. The tools were generally either purchased by the landowner or they were crafted by someone in the employ (or servitude) of the landowner. Smaller landowners ...


3

I've heard before that the reason that many Native Americans are alcoholics is because they didn't have alcoholic beverages, and thus they didn't build up a resistance to it. I don't know how true that is. As for people not knowing anything about alcohol, there was this one instance in New Guinea during WWII where a C-47 crashed into an unkown valley, ...


3

"The grass family is one of the most widely distributed and abundant groups of plants on Earth. Grasses are found on every continent, and are absent only from central Greenland and much of Antarctica" Wikipedia page It seems unlikely that grass seed would ever have been really all the prized given it's natural abundance basically everywhere. Grass also ...


3

This is a great question, since many middle school text books are using this framing. I'm partial to NC: Who own's the land? The traditional view of European-Indian land deals is that Europeans tricked the Indians, who failed to understand the consequences of their actions....English colonists rarely, if ever, forcibly displaced an Indian village or took ...


2

Interesting question! I can't say for actual averages and all, but I can explain how this worked and the factors affecting both people. I do know that with livestock, open grazing was done, taking them out to what pasture you can find. So probably lots of communal grazing too. But you probably want to know how much land they owned for themselves to crop. ...


2

Some people said that wine is not grown in Britain but I have read of contemporary British wine growing. the climate of Britain was warmer during the Roman Era than in some later eras, and there is evidence of wine growing in Britain in the Roman era and in the medieval era. Lord Bute grew grapes and made wine at his castle in Cardiff, Wales, about 1900. ...


2

This looks more than a coincidence than anything else. Romans did conquer lands which could not grow wine, e.g. the British Isles: the climate of Atlantic-facing areas of Europe is reputed to have been somewhat warmer than usual in Roman times, but this does not mean that winegrowing was actually possible, let alone done by Roman colonists. In fact, ...


2

I was very skeptical, since you didn't cite any reason to doubt the claim, but a paper by Dr. Lynn Ceci supports your skepticism: The belief that the use of fish fertilizers originated among North American Indians, and was communicated as such by Squanto to the Plymouth settlers, has achieved the status of folklore and is therefore difficult to ...


2

If we accept that Turkey is part of Mesopotamia (at least some of it) and that the ninth picture in this page comes from Turkey, then a Mesopotamian beehive from 8000 BC looks exactly as the statue's tiara. However this is only a tentative answer, as I do not know very much about it.


2

This paper in Nature is fascinating - unfortunately, the chemical studies described were not performed on ancient East Asians, but it lines up with archaeological and anthropological evidence worldwide. There have only been two studies of Palaeolithic modern humans, Homo sapiens sapiens. A study of the isotope values of humans from the late Upper ...


2

As noted on the Wiki page, grass seed was imported to the new world to improve pasturage for livestock. A kept lawn is, in its conception, a decorative pasture - a marker of status. So the best grass for pasture was the best grass for commons and household yards where a sheep or goat could graze... which became the standard for purely decorative lawns. As ...


2

The chief impact on the ratio of agricultural workers to workers in all other industries has been the dramatic growth of workers in other sectors. Agricultural workers have increased in number at times, particularly with the proletarianisation of peasants, petits-bourgeois, and lumpen-proletarians in the development of modernity. The "total workforce" has ...


2

The Otomi'. the Tlaxcalan, the Nahua (Aztecs), the Tarasca, the Zapotec, the Huastec, the Totonac, the Mejica, and the Mixtec all knew pulque (Poohl - kei), which is derived from the self-fermenting sap of the highland Maguey....a larege, rough relative of the lilly family. Alcohol content varies according to sub-species, elevation (high or higher...5,000 ...



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