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39

Presumably no earlier than the ninth century, as there is this: 804 Hellenes of Laconia, Greece, resist the attempt of Tarasius, Patriarch of Constantinople, to convert them to Christianity. Further searching yields this, though it seems to be rather thinly sourced: The Maniots began to convert to Christianity in the 9th century AD, but it ...


15

If you read "Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion", by John Cuthbert Lawson, you will see that, as late as 1910, there were are least significant vestiges of original Greek religion. Other useful material can by found in the works of Jane Ellen Harrison. I hesitate to try to summarize >300 pages here. Much of it is what you might call ...


12

Probably not. Wikipedia's claim that the Pythia goes into a vapor frenzy and spoke gibberish is not so much a usual theory as it is a common misconception. According to Pierre Amandry, the idea of an ecstatic and unintelligible priestess was sparked by Plato in his Phaedrus, section 244. Amandry argued that early Christian writers adopted this image of ...


11

I think you might be confusing phalanx: Each individual hoplite carried his shield on the left arm, protecting not only himself but the soldier to the left. This meant that the men at the extreme right of the phalanx were only half-protected. In battle, opposing phalanxes would exploit this weakness by attempting to overlap the enemy's right flank. It ...


9

Generally speaking, Pytheas of Massalia had an apparently undeserved reputation as a "liar of the first magnitude" during antiquity. Much of what we know of this comes from Strabo, who is incidentally Pytheas' most vocal critic. Strabo argues against the authenticity of the Massilian's reports primarily based on the dimensions of Great Britain and the ...


8

Note that an empire isn't necessarily ruled by an emperor. When historians describe Alexander's conquests as an "empire", it is at least partly in reference to the fact that he subjugated many nations and countries under his central authority. Alexander was definitely an "emperor in the sense that he was a ruler of this polity. Since the word "emperor" ...


8

From the 350s onwards, the emporer Constantius II introduced the death penalty for practising pagan rituals. Of course, it didn't die out then until much later, but interest would have significantly dropped as Christianity became more and more popular, eventually becoming the official state religion. There are of course people who still practise these ...


7

I believe you are thinking of Herostratus, the name of the man for whom the law was created (according to the History, he set fire to the temple of Artemis in Ephesus just in order to be famous and recorded in the History1) More generally, that law (and other similar like those of romans, egyptians and the like) are usually called damnatio memoriae; usually ...


6

In 1944-45, the late forensic anthropologist John Lawrence Angel studied Ancient Greek skeletal remains. His results were 162 cm for men and 153 cm for women. He only had a rather small sample size at the time, though. Right after his death, excavation began on the cemetery of the Magna Graecia colony-city of Metapontum. The Metaontum necropolis was ...


6

Well, I will provide my point of view which mostly coincides with the one of @Relaxed. Greek alphabet was adopted by many people when Greek political and spiritual influence of Greek-speaking people was at its height. That said for example we can say that two of the most commonly used alphabet derive from Greek alphabet (that does not include them nowadays ...


6

It would be interesting to make a list of principal ancient texts and how each of them reached us. And make a statistics. (Perhaps someone knows such a list?) Many of the texts that I know exist in both Arabic and Greek medieval versions. Before this list is made, I want to express my doubts about Tyler Durden answer. He only gives examples of literary work ...


6

It was probably always the norm, at least in a way that also tolerated concubines. The Ancient Greeks were of course descended from Proto-Indo-Europeans. As early as 1864, French historian Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges reasoned in his magnus opus, La Cité antique, that marriages were monogamous from the earliest days of the Indo-European peoples. The ...


6

Definitely, Crimea (Chersonesos) or some place in its surrounding. Crimea's south coast was part of Roman Empire in 47 BC - 330 AD, and also a part of the Byzantine Empire later.


5

Alexander apparently received that epithet from the Romans, who admired him. The oldest surviving reference of the title is found in the Mostellaria ("The Haunted House"), a play written by Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254 – 184 BC). This roughly a century or so after Alexander's death in 323 BC. Tranio: Alexandrum magnum, atque Agathoclem, aiunt maxumas Duo ...


5

I believe some of the lists - at least fragmentary ones from epigraphic sources - can be found in Fornara's volume in the "Translated Documents of Greece and Rome" series: http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/classical-studies/ancient-history/archaic-times-end-peloponnesian-war-2nd-edition


5

The "Greco-Roman" culture did not depend on Arabs to preserve it. Relatively few Roman works of science and literature are known only from Arab sources/translations. The literature of Greece and Rome was transmitted, as you said by the Byzantines, but also by many other sources including the Irish, the churches of Asia Minor and the Levant, the Romans ...


5

Well I can't possibly find hidden archives using Google but there are ancient archives. And hopefully this would be a relief to you in some way. And I'm community wiki-ing this answer as this is only a partial answer right now.


4

The Greek word is atë (ἄτη), when not used as a proper noun but as a common noun, as seen in the canonical "The Greeks and the Irrational" by E. R. Dodds (Google Books).


4

The ancient Greeks wrote the same way as the Egyptians: on papyrus scrolls. The oldest European manuscript I know of is the Derveni papyrus which is a Greek scroll dated to 362 B.C.. The writing was made with a narrow brush rather than a pen. The Greeks also wrote on clay, such as the fragments of broken pots (ostraka). Students would write on the ground or ...


4

I don't have a particular source for this, but I remember my high school Latin teacher telling us that Roman wine was more like a strong, thick concentrate much stronger than the wine we drink today, intended to be diluted before drinking. Think like those 100% berry juices you can buy at health food stores in the US, that are undrinkably tart without adding ...


4

Cthonic sacrifices generally resulted in the animals being burnt entire. Totally cremating doves meant the smell of burnt feathers as well as burning meat. Normally sacrifices resulted in bones and fat being burnt for the gods on high altars. I suspect the height was not only part of the spectacle but got the greasy smoke above the heads of the crowd rather ...


4

It is very difficult to know something like this, because the archaeological remains are fragmentary and there are no contemporary written records. Estimates based on agricultural capability have too many variables of uncertainty to be reliable. The most famous piece of information concerning pre-historic Greece statistics is the Catalog of Ships, the list ...


4

The town of Novigrad may be the most northern town of Greek origin. Reputedly it was originally founded by the Greeks as Neapolis (new city).


3

I would highly recommend this podcast for more information: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00txj8d Around the 24 minute mark, Pythia is discussed. The historian on the program says that some of the women who served as Pythia likely did speak gibberish, which provided a chance for "translation" into a well-composed answer (Plutarch's theory). However, she ...


3

The Latin alphabet, as it has been mentioned so far, derives from a Greek alphabet. That is, the Chalcidic alphabet. It was widely used in the areas of Chalkida and Eretria, in the island of Euboea and found its way to cities of Southern Italy through settlers of Cumae (also see this passage). From there, it went on to become the basis for Latin. In ...


3

No, because much if not all of the Persian Fleet consisted of contributions from Greek cities and thus had "free" rowers as well. Slave rowers are really a creation of the medieval period, not ancient times, despite what Ben Hur says. Persia was a landlocked nation and had no naval tradition. However, its conquest of Asia Minor and the shores of the ...


3

The Wikipedia page of "oracular statements from Delphi" lists a few accounts that might apply here. One example could be the Oracle of Delphi's counsel to Philip of Macedonia. He was told, "With silver spears you may conquer the world." The straightforward reading would be to make a whole bunch of spears made of silver and go to war. But Philip wisely ...


3

The first use of the term golden section (Der goldenen schnitt) was by the German mathematician Martin Ohm in his book "Pure Elementary Mathematics" (1835). Since Ohm, various authors have theorized about the presence of the ratio between the extreme and mean as defined by Book 2, Proposition 11 of Euclid, notably Jay Hambridge in his book "Dynamic Symmetry: ...


3

This Map of Greek Colonies in the Adriatic shows that the most northerly posts were Pharos and Issos halfway up the coast. These were secondary settlements from Syracuse and Ionian cities, though. If you eliminate those you are down in Albania.


2

Not sure, but is it Ate, who causes blind recklessness? No personal knowledge, but found this interesting:- http://www.theoi.com/Daimon/Ate.html In the context, interesting that St Paul was blinded before he accepted Christianity - possible cultural link?



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