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56

The number of legs is correct. It's the number of heads that is wrong. The chariot depicted is an Olympic quadriga which was driven by four horses. The artist probably found it difficult to make a design that included all four horse heads, so he just drew two of them.


29

There was no publishers, no royalties, and no copyright. All these things were invented after the spread of the printer press. If you are a scientist/philosopher, you would write your book yourself, or hire a scribe if you are rich enough. Then you will send it to a friend, and/or read to your students. Almost all books in mathematics and astronomy begin ...


20

Certainly. In fact there was even a whole series of Sacred Wars. More specifically, the First Sacred War was fought by the Amphictyonic League against the city of Cirrha over the latter's mistreatment of religious pilgrims to Delphi. Delphi derived religious significance from its Temple of Apollo, which housed the famous Pythia - the Oracle of Delphi. The ...


16

The Spartans are known for different things to different peoples in time. Some of these things are good, and others bad. Today, if you ask a typical 20-something man who has a keen interest in history, watches historical movies and plays historical video games, he will say that the Spartans are best remembered for their Military prowess. It is this quality ...


15

Ancient Mediterranean sailcloth was made of a fine linen, which was written "linon" in Greek and "lintea" in Latin. Many ancient literary sources mention this, for example, Aeschylus, Virgil, Homer, etc. There is a book, "Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World" (1995) by Lionel Casson that goes into detail about ancient ship technology.


13

He synchronised them to the solar zenith. Eratosthenes knew that on the day of the summer solstice, the sun passed vertically above Syene, which lies very close to the Tropics of Cancer. As the traditional account goes, the sun was directly above a vertical well at Syene, whereas at Alexandria the columns of the Library always leaves a shadow. Either way, ...


12

The waters around Mount Athos were known to be dangerous.[Note] It was here that an earlier Persian fleet met its demise during the invasion of 492 BC. According to Herodotus in his Histories (VI. 45): Crossing over from Thasos [the Persians] travelled near the land as far as Acanthus, and putting out from there they tried to round Athos. But a great and ...


11

Two talents may confidently be assumed, [...] as a moderate estimate of the cost of both hull and rigging of a trireme. (p. 364) Source: Frank Egleston Robbins, The Cost to Athens of Her Second Empire, Classical Philology, Vol. 13, No. 4 (Oct., 1918), pp. 361-388. Newer authors (relying, as far as I can tell from a very cursory examination, upon ...


11

No, the original author did not get royalties. In fact, often times original authors of works would not be known, or people would write works and attribute them to more famous authors in an effort to get them more widely distributed (up to half of Paul's Epistles are thought to have been authored this way). Since there was no printing, and most people were ...


10

The Peleset was one of the Sea Peoples to invade Egypt during the reign of Ramesse III in the fifth and eighth years. They have been identified with the Biblical Philistines ever since the works of Jean-François Champollion in the early 19th century. Like the Sea Peoples in general however, there is no real, firm evidence. The Peleset (Egyptian ...


10

Generally speaking, Pytheas of Massalia had an apparently undeserved reputation as a "liar of the first magnitude" during antiquity. Much of what we know of this comes from Strabo, who is incidentally Pytheas' most vocal critic. Strabo argues against the authenticity of the Massilian's reports primarily based on the dimensions of Great Britain and the ...


9

It was probably always the norm, at least in a way that also tolerated concubines. The Ancient Greeks were of course descended from Proto-Indo-Europeans. As early as 1864, French historian Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges reasoned in his magnus opus, La Cité antique, that marriages were monogamous from the earliest days of the Indo-European peoples. The ...


9

Yes, they did. At the very least Pausanias in "Description of Greece" VI, 20, 1 mentions sacrifice for Cronus done once a year on the head of a mountain Elathion in Elis. Sorry, I can't find a reference for English translation of this excerpt. Talking about Rhea, the late cult of Rhea-Cybele is widely known. UPD. Pausanias "Description of Greece" I, 18, 7 ...


8

I would have made that a comment, but do not have enough reputation. In this article the author is referring to a study conducted by Columbia University in New York where the leader of the study, Joshua New stated, that fear of spiders dates back to the early human evolution in Africa. It acted as sort of a survival instinct. Detecting the spider before it ...


8

On my opinion, Wikipedia gives a satisfactory description of the current state of knowledge about this question. On the place which Schliemann excavated there are 11 or 12 layers of ancient cities which existed in various historical periods. One of these layers is roughly of the same time which is traditionally thought as the time of the Troyan war described ...


8

Wikipedia, after Hanson (2006), claims that a typical trireme took 6,000 man days to complete. If you take a 25 man crew as around the optimal size, balancing the ease of performing certain tasks against the non-linear aspects of managing large teams, that would equate to 240 days effort, or perhaps 9 months elapsed time allowing for days off, bad weather, ...


7

I believe you are thinking of Herostratus, the name of the man for whom the law was created (according to the History, he set fire to the temple of Artemis in Ephesus just in order to be famous and recorded in the History1) More generally, that law (and other similar like those of romans, egyptians and the like) are usually called damnatio memoriae; usually ...


7

Definitely, Crimea (Chersonesos) or some place in its surrounding. Crimea's south coast was part of Roman Empire in 47 BC - 330 AD, and also a part of the Byzantine Empire later.


7

Based on my answer on the Mythology stack... There used to be a theory that the Titans were actually the gods of the inhabitants of (geographical) Greece before the Greeks invaded and took it over. The idea there is that the story of Titanomachy is actually an allegory for the Greek takeover of their modern homeland. This theory was popular enough back ...


7

On my opinion, this statement "When we look to history we see that ignoring science has led to the crumbling of societies" is not confirmed by history. Societies, or civilizations come and go and there is no evidence that this is somehow related to the development of science. Science, in its present form, was mostly created by the Hellenistic Greeks, and ...


7

Age of consent laws could, in part, explain why we've settled on 18 or ages near to it. Age of consent statutes can be dated as far back as 1275 in England and were adopted in a number of other countries throughout Europe. Some of the first interpretations settled on the "age of marriage", which at the time was 12. Part of the problem with have a set number ...


6

Simple. While the earth moves around the year, the sun seemingly moves around between the Tropic of Cancer (north) and the Tropic of the Capricorn (south). In the north this is begin of summer and the sun reaches the highest point. The first city where the deep well exists is the city of Syene (now Assuan) which is almost exactly on the Tropic of Cancer, ...


5

The Greek historian Herodotus is the main primary source of information about the battle of Thermopylae. Most other records of the battle come from historians who lived centuries after the battle. They are all fairly consistent with each other. How did Herodotus get his information? The most common way historians did for centuries. By travelling the world ...


5

Well I can't possibly find hidden archives using Google but there are ancient archives. And hopefully this would be a relief to you in some way. And I'm community wiki-ing this answer as this is only a partial answer right now.


5

The study of ancient climate is called paleoclimatology. The word "climate," incidentally, comes from the Greek word, klima. There is a difference of opinion about the climate of ancient Greece. For a long time it was the common view that ancient Greece was a temperate, forested paradise with meadows, like modern France or Pennsylvania, a so-called ...


5

The first person on your list is greek, so obviously being a Philhellence doesn't mean you must be non-greek. Actually, wikipedia says: the term 'philhellene' (Greek: φιλέλλην, from φίλος - philos, "dear one, friend" + Έλλην - Hellen, "Greek"[1]) was used to describe both non-Greeks who were fond of Greek culture and Greeks who patriotically upheld their ...


5

Edit: I think I have to revise quite a bit. One thing is that the Peloponnesian Wars went through various stages which themselves got different titles (Ionian, Corinthian, etc). As a result the poster on Yahoo Answers may be quite right. In the Ionian War, which crushed Athens, the Persians provided the gold for the Spartan Fleet. In the Corinthian War, ...


4

First of all, spartans were dorian greeks who had culture of their own (specific dialect, calendar etc.). And Peloponnesus itself was relatively closed world for many years. Certainly, spartans appreciated poetry, and there are quite a few well-known names, yet little remained of their texts written in 7th century B.C. in laconic dialect. Next, the vast ...


4

Mycenaean Greek is an Indo-European language. Hebrew is a Northwestern Semitic language. This by itself makes the notion a non-starter. Gordon makes the case in the book that Minoan and Hebrew have the same roots, and Minoan culture preceded the adoption of Greek in Mycenaea in his speculative Eastern Mediterranean civilization, but this is unfounded in ...


4

There are also some hints based on the representation of the Peleset in Egyptian art, with a rather distinctive helmet : which seems to be similar to some helmets found in Crete during the same era : Nothing to link them specifically to the Pelasgians except for the similar name, though.



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