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39

Presumably no earlier than the ninth century, as there is this: 804 Hellenes of Laconia, Greece, resist the attempt of Tarasius, Patriarch of Constantinople, to convert them to Christianity. Further searching yields this, though it seems to be rather thinly sourced: The Maniots began to convert to Christianity in the 9th century AD, but it ...


15

If you read "Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion", by John Cuthbert Lawson, you will see that, as late as 1910, there were are least significant vestiges of original Greek religion. Other useful material can by found in the works of Jane Ellen Harrison. I hesitate to try to summarize >300 pages here. Much of it is what you might call ...


12

Probably not. Wikipedia's claim that the Pythia goes into a vapor frenzy and spoke gibberish is not so much a usual theory as it is a common misconception. According to Pierre Amandry, the idea of an ecstatic and unintelligible priestess was sparked by Plato in his Phaedrus, section 244. Amandry argued that early Christian writers adopted this image of ...


11

I think you might be confusing phalanx: Each individual hoplite carried his shield on the left arm, protecting not only himself but the soldier to the left. This meant that the men at the extreme right of the phalanx were only half-protected. In battle, opposing phalanxes would exploit this weakness by attempting to overlap the enemy's right flank. It ...


8

From the 350s onwards, the emporer Constantius II introduced the death penalty for practising pagan rituals. Of course, it didn't die out then until much later, but interest would have significantly dropped as Christianity became more and more popular, eventually becoming the official state religion. There are of course people who still practise these ...


8

Note that an empire isn't necessarily ruled by an emperor. When historians describe Alexander's conquests as an "empire", it is at least partly in reference to the fact that he subjugated many nations and countries under his central authority. Alexander was definitely an "emperor in the sense that he was a ruler of this polity. Since the word "emperor" ...


6

Well, I will provide my point of view which mostly coincides with the one of @Relaxed. Greek alphabet was adopted by many people when Greek political and spiritual influence of Greek-speaking people was at its height. That said for example we can say that two of the most commonly used alphabet derive from Greek alphabet (that does not include them nowadays ...


6

In 1944-45, the late forensic anthropologist John Lawrence Angel studied Ancient Greek skeletal remains. His results were 162 cm for men and 153 cm for women. He only had a rather small sample size at the time, though. Right after his death, excavation began on the cemetery of the Magna Graecia colony-city of Metapontum. The Metaontum necropolis was ...


6

It would be interesting to make a list of principal ancient texts and how each of them reached us. And make a statistics. (Perhaps someone knows such a list?) Many of the texts that I know exist in both Arabic and Greek medieval versions. Before this list is made, I want to express my doubts about Tyler Durden answer. He only gives examples of literary work ...


5

I believe some of the lists - at least fragmentary ones from epigraphic sources - can be found in Fornara's volume in the "Translated Documents of Greece and Rome" series: http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/classical-studies/ancient-history/archaic-times-end-peloponnesian-war-2nd-edition


5

The "Greco-Roman" culture did not depend on Arabs to preserve it. Relatively few Roman works of science and literature are known only from Arab sources/translations. The literature of Greece and Rome was transmitted, as you said by the Byzantines, but also by many other sources including the Irish, the churches of Asia Minor and the Levant, the Romans ...


4

It is very difficult to know something like this, because the archaeological remains are fragmentary and there are no contemporary written records. Estimates based on agricultural capability have too many variables of uncertainty to be reliable. The most famous piece of information concerning pre-historic Greece statistics is the Catalog of Ships, the list ...


4

The Greek word is atë (ἄτη), when not used as a proper noun but as a common noun, as seen in the canonical "The Greeks and the Irrational" by E. R. Dodds (Google Books).


4

I don't have a particular source for this, but I remember my high school Latin teacher telling us that Roman wine was more like a strong, thick concentrate much stronger than the wine we drink today, intended to be diluted before drinking. Think like those 100% berry juices you can buy at health food stores in the US, that are undrinkably tart without adding ...


4

Cthonic sacrifices generally resulted in the animals being burnt entire. Totally cremating doves meant the smell of burnt feathers as well as burning meat. Normally sacrifices resulted in bones and fat being burnt for the gods on high altars. I suspect the height was not only part of the spectacle but got the greasy smoke above the heads of the crowd rather ...


4

The ancient Greeks wrote the same way as the Egyptians: on papyrus scrolls. The oldest European manuscript I know of is the Derveni papyrus which is a Greek scroll dated to 362 B.C.. The writing was made with a narrow brush rather than a pen. The Greeks also wrote on clay, such as the fragments of broken pots (ostraka). Students would write on the ground or ...


4

First off the Greco-Roman world extends over a long time period. Depending on how you measure it that could span a millennium. So the answer to your question changes depending on when you are travelling, (and the season of the year; some seasons you travel by sea, and some you must travel by land) and where you are travelling. Beyond that, the answer ...


3

The Wikipedia page of "oracular statements from Delphi" lists a few accounts that might apply here. One example could be the Oracle of Delphi's counsel to Philip of Macedonia. He was told, "With silver spears you may conquer the world." The straightforward reading would be to make a whole bunch of spears made of silver and go to war. But Philip wisely ...


3

No, because much if not all of the Persian Fleet consisted of contributions from Greek cities and thus had "free" rowers as well. Slave rowers are really a creation of the medieval period, not ancient times, despite what Ben Hur says. Persia was a landlocked nation and had no naval tradition. However, its conquest of Asia Minor and the shores of the ...


3

The Latin alphabet, as it has been mentioned so far, derives from a Greek alphabet. That is, the Chalcidic alphabet. It was widely used in the areas of Chalkida and Eretria, in the island of Euboea and found its way to cities of Southern Italy through settlers of Cumae (also see this passage). From there, it went on to become the basis for Latin. In ...


3

I would highly recommend this podcast for more information: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00txj8d Around the 24 minute mark, Pythia is discussed. The historian on the program says that some of the women who served as Pythia likely did speak gibberish, which provided a chance for "translation" into a well-composed answer (Plutarch's theory). However, she ...


3

The first use of the term golden section (Der goldenen schnitt) was by the German mathematician Martin Ohm in his book "Pure Elementary Mathematics" (1835). Since Ohm, various authors have theorized about the presence of the ratio between the extreme and mean as defined by Book 2, Proposition 11 of Euclid, notably Jay Hambridge in his book "Dynamic Symmetry: ...


2

First of all, your assumption that slaves in Rome addressed their master as "domine" is not true. The language used in the household was completely different than the "silver" Latin you read in Cicero or Seneca. Vernacular Latin had large amounts of Greek slang in it and the lower in the class the person, the more slangy it got. Words like kurios and ...


2

It was, for the most part. While there are many other writing systems, both the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets (and, in fact, the use of an alphabet – as opposed to other type of writing systems including abjads like the Arabic or Phoenician writing system) all derive from the Greek one. Definitional issues aside, the Greek alphabet has been extremely ...


2

What they are: Aristocracy comes from Aristokratia, a Greek word meaning "rule of the best". In Aristocracy, the rich are deemed worthy of ruling the government and enjoyed special privileges, while the common people did not, and did not have any government power. Oligarchy is the rule of only the chosen, In an Oligarchy, people are chosen to rule the ...


2

Euclid, like other ancient authors, would probably have dictated his books to a literate slave, who wrote them down on wax tables, with a stylus, as Tyler has described. The tablets would then have been passed on to a professional scribe (also a slave), who copied them on to scrolls made of papyrus.


2

You kind of answered your own question by mentioning the phalanx. First of all, you will often read some historians saying that chariots were not used by "mountain" people or that the terrain in such-and-such country was not suitable for chariots. This is not true. Macedonia is one of the most mountainous areas in Europe and they were famous for their ...


2

While searching some more, I found an excellent resource on ancient Greek (although website is a bit slow and sometimes it throws exceptions). The word describing a state of blindness inflicted by the gods was known as θεοβλαβεία (infatuation sent by the gods, madness, blindness). I still can't find the specific source where I first saw it, but I could ...


2

Not sure, but is it Ate, who causes blind recklessness? No personal knowledge, but found this interesting:- http://www.theoi.com/Daimon/Ate.html In the context, interesting that St Paul was blinded before he accepted Christianity - possible cultural link?


2

Looking from a different angle, the Greek (and Roman, and Egyptian, and Nordic, etc) gods were organised as families; dad, mom, son, daughter (with a few extras). The monotheistic religions evolved from these by just keeping daddy. Christians put mom and son back in again. People never stopped worshipping the old gods. They just reconfigured them.



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