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39

Presumably no earlier than the ninth century, as there is this: 804 Hellenes of Laconia, Greece, resist the attempt of Tarasius, Patriarch of Constantinople, to convert them to Christianity. Further searching yields this, though it seems to be rather thinly sourced: The Maniots began to convert to Christianity in the 9th century AD, but it ...


15

If you read "Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion", by John Cuthbert Lawson, you will see that, as late as 1910, there were are least significant vestiges of original Greek religion. Other useful material can by found in the works of Jane Ellen Harrison. I hesitate to try to summarize >300 pages here. Much of it is what you might call ...


14

Ancient Mediterranean sailcloth was made of a fine linen, which was written "linon" in Greek and "lintea" in Latin. Many ancient literary sources mention this, for example, Aeschylus, Virgil, Homer, etc. There is a book, "Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World" (1995) by Lionel Casson that goes into detail about ancient ship technology.


12

Probably not. Wikipedia's claim that the Pythia goes into a vapor frenzy and spoke gibberish is not so much a usual theory as it is a common misconception. According to Pierre Amandry, the idea of an ecstatic and unintelligible priestess was sparked by Plato in his Phaedrus, section 244. Amandry argued that early Christian writers adopted this image of ...


12

He synchronised them to the solar zenith. Eratosthenes knew that on the day of the summer solstice, the sun passed vertically above Syene, which lies very close to the Tropics of Cancer. As the traditional account goes, the sun was directly above a vertical well at Syene, whereas at Alexandria the columns of the Library always leaves a shadow. Either way, ...


11

I think you might be confusing phalanx: Each individual hoplite carried his shield on the left arm, protecting not only himself but the soldier to the left. This meant that the men at the extreme right of the phalanx were only half-protected. In battle, opposing phalanxes would exploit this weakness by attempting to overlap the enemy's right flank. It ...


10

Generally speaking, Pytheas of Massalia had an apparently undeserved reputation as a "liar of the first magnitude" during antiquity. Much of what we know of this comes from Strabo, who is incidentally Pytheas' most vocal critic. Strabo argues against the authenticity of the Massilian's reports primarily based on the dimensions of Great Britain and the ...


10

The Peleset was one of the Sea Peoples to invade Egypt during the reign of Ramesse III in the fifth and eighth years. They have been identified with the Biblical Philistines ever since the works of Jean-François Champollion in the early 19th century. Like the Sea Peoples in general however, there is no real, firm evidence. The Peleset (Egyptian ...


8

From the 350s onwards, the emporer Constantius II introduced the death penalty for practising pagan rituals. Of course, it didn't die out then until much later, but interest would have significantly dropped as Christianity became more and more popular, eventually becoming the official state religion. There are of course people who still practise these ...


8

Note that an empire isn't necessarily ruled by an emperor. When historians describe Alexander's conquests as an "empire", it is at least partly in reference to the fact that he subjugated many nations and countries under his central authority. Alexander was definitely an "emperor in the sense that he was a ruler of this polity. Since the word "emperor" ...


7

I believe you are thinking of Herostratus, the name of the man for whom the law was created (according to the History, he set fire to the temple of Artemis in Ephesus just in order to be famous and recorded in the History1) More generally, that law (and other similar like those of romans, egyptians and the like) are usually called damnatio memoriae; usually ...


7

Definitely, Crimea (Chersonesos) or some place in its surrounding. Crimea's south coast was part of Roman Empire in 47 BC - 330 AD, and also a part of the Byzantine Empire later.


6

Well, I will provide my point of view which mostly coincides with the one of @Relaxed. Greek alphabet was adopted by many people when Greek political and spiritual influence of Greek-speaking people was at its height. That said for example we can say that two of the most commonly used alphabet derive from Greek alphabet (that does not include them nowadays ...


6

In 1944-45, the late forensic anthropologist John Lawrence Angel studied Ancient Greek skeletal remains. His results were 162 cm for men and 153 cm for women. He only had a rather small sample size at the time, though. Right after his death, excavation began on the cemetery of the Magna Graecia colony-city of Metapontum. The Metaontum necropolis was ...


6

It would be interesting to make a list of principal ancient texts and how each of them reached us. And make a statistics. (Perhaps someone knows such a list?) Many of the texts that I know exist in both Arabic and Greek medieval versions. Before this list is made, I want to express my doubts about Tyler Durden answer. He only gives examples of literary work ...


6

It was probably always the norm, at least in a way that also tolerated concubines. The Ancient Greeks were of course descended from Proto-Indo-Europeans. As early as 1864, French historian Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges reasoned in his magnus opus, La Cité antique, that marriages were monogamous from the earliest days of the Indo-European peoples. The ...


6

Simple. While the earth moves around the year, the sun seemingly moves around between the Tropic of Cancer (north) and the Tropic of the Capricorn (south). In the north this is begin of summer and the sun reaches the highest point. The first city where the deep well exists is the city of Syene (now Assuan) which is almost exactly on the Tropic of Cancer, ...


6

The Spartans are known for different things to different peoples in time. Some of these things are good, and others bad. Today, if you ask a typical 20-something man who has a keen interest in history, watches historical movies and plays historical video games, he will say that the Spartans are best remembered for their Military prowess. It is this quality ...


5

I believe some of the lists - at least fragmentary ones from epigraphic sources - can be found in Fornara's volume in the "Translated Documents of Greece and Rome" series: http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/classical-studies/ancient-history/archaic-times-end-peloponnesian-war-2nd-edition


5

Alexander apparently received that epithet from the Romans, who admired him. The oldest surviving reference of the title is found in the Mostellaria ("The Haunted House"), a play written by Titus Maccius Plautus (c. 254 – 184 BC). This roughly a century or so after Alexander's death in 323 BC. Tranio: Alexandrum magnum, atque Agathoclem, aiunt maxumas Duo ...


5

The "Greco-Roman" culture did not depend on Arabs to preserve it. Relatively few Roman works of science and literature are known only from Arab sources/translations. The literature of Greece and Rome was transmitted, as you said by the Byzantines, but also by many other sources including the Irish, the churches of Asia Minor and the Levant, the Romans ...


5

Well I can't possibly find hidden archives using Google but there are ancient archives. And hopefully this would be a relief to you in some way. And I'm community wiki-ing this answer as this is only a partial answer right now.


5

The study of ancient climate is called paleoclimatology. The word "climate," incidentally, comes from the Greek word, klima. There is a difference of opinion about the climate of ancient Greece. For a long time it was the common view that ancient Greece was a temperate, forested paradise with meadows, like modern France or Pennsylvania, a so-called ...


4

Cthonic sacrifices generally resulted in the animals being burnt entire. Totally cremating doves meant the smell of burnt feathers as well as burning meat. Normally sacrifices resulted in bones and fat being burnt for the gods on high altars. I suspect the height was not only part of the spectacle but got the greasy smoke above the heads of the crowd rather ...


4

No, because much if not all of the Persian Fleet consisted of contributions from Greek cities and thus had "free" rowers as well. Slave rowers are really a creation of the medieval period, not ancient times, despite what Ben Hur says. Persia was a landlocked nation and had no naval tradition. However, its conquest of Asia Minor and the shores of the ...


4

I don't have a particular source for this, but I remember my high school Latin teacher telling us that Roman wine was more like a strong, thick concentrate much stronger than the wine we drink today, intended to be diluted before drinking. Think like those 100% berry juices you can buy at health food stores in the US, that are undrinkably tart without adding ...


4

The Greek word is atë (ἄτη), when not used as a proper noun but as a common noun, as seen in the canonical "The Greeks and the Irrational" by E. R. Dodds (Google Books).


4

It is very difficult to know something like this, because the archaeological remains are fragmentary and there are no contemporary written records. Estimates based on agricultural capability have too many variables of uncertainty to be reliable. The most famous piece of information concerning pre-historic Greece statistics is the Catalog of Ships, the list ...


4

The town of Novigrad may be the most northern town of Greek origin. Reputedly it was originally founded by the Greeks as Neapolis (new city).


4

The Greek historian Herodotus is the main primary source of information about the battle of Thermopylae. Most other records of the battle come from historians who lived centuries after the battle. They are all fairly consistent with each other. How did Herodotus get his information? The most common way historians did for centuries. By travelling the world ...



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