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39

Presumably no earlier than the ninth century, as there is this: 804 Hellenes of Laconia, Greece, resist the attempt of Tarasius, Patriarch of Constantinople, to convert them to Christianity. Further searching yields this, though it seems to be rather thinly sourced: The Maniots began to convert to Christianity in the 9th century AD, but it ...


15

If you read "Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion", by John Cuthbert Lawson, you will see that, as late as 1910, there were are least significant vestiges of original Greek religion. Other useful material can by found in the works of Jane Ellen Harrison. I hesitate to try to summarize >300 pages here. Much of it is what you might call ...


11

I think you might be confusing phalanx: Each individual hoplite carried his shield on the left arm, protecting not only himself but the soldier to the left. This meant that the men at the extreme right of the phalanx were only half-protected. In battle, opposing phalanxes would exploit this weakness by attempting to overlap the enemy's right flank. It ...


11

Probably not. Wikipedia's claim that the Pythia goes into a vapor frenzy and spoke gibberish is not so much a usual theory as it is a common misconception. According to Pierre Amandry, the idea of an ecstatic and unintelligible priestess was sparked by Plato in his Phaedrus, section 244. Amandry argued that early Christian writers adopted this image of ...


10

Greek was in wide usage as the lingua franca of the Near East. It also has the benefit of actually surviving Roman rule, in the same capacity, all the way till the Late Antiquity. The Romans themselves read and spoke Greek. Thus, Greek works have had a much greater chance of surviving simply from a great, wider, and more durable distribution. The Etruscan ...


9

You are taking the quote out of context. Here is the complete text from the Story of Civilization: Twelve years he wandered, imbibing wisdom from every source, sitting at every shrine, tasting every creed. Some would have it that he went to Judea and was moulded for a while by the tradition of the almost socialistic prophets; and even that he found ...


8

Note that an empire isn't necessarily ruled by an emperor. When historians describe Alexander's conquests as an "empire", it is at least partly in reference to the fact that he subjugated many nations and countries under his central authority. Alexander was definitely an "emperor in the sense that he was a ruler of this polity. Since the word "emperor" ...


8

From the 350s onwards, the emporer Constantius II introduced the death penalty for practising pagan rituals. Of course, it didn't die out then until much later, but interest would have significantly dropped as Christianity became more and more popular, eventually becoming the official state religion. There are of course people who still practise these ...


6

In 1944-45, the late forensic anthropologist John Lawrence Angel studied Ancient Greek skeletal remains. His results were 162 cm for men and 153 cm for women. He only had a rather small sample size at the time, though. Right after his death, excavation began on the cemetery of the Magna Graecia colony-city of Metapontum. The Metaontum necropolis was ...


5

I believe some of the lists - at least fragmentary ones from epigraphic sources - can be found in Fornara's volume in the "Translated Documents of Greece and Rome" series: http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/classical-studies/ancient-history/archaic-times-end-peloponnesian-war-2nd-edition


5

Well, I will provide my point of view which mostly coincides with the one of @Relaxed. Greek alphabet was adopted by many people when Greek political and spiritual influence of Greek-speaking people was at its height. That said for example we can say that two of the most commonly used alphabet derive from Greek alphabet (that does not include them nowadays ...


5

At its heyday the phalanx was the most advanced heavy infantry formation of its time. The Romans were able to beat it (at the battle of Pidna, for example) because their manipular legion was more flexible while enjoying a strong cohesion just as the phalanx did. So you can say perhaps that the legion out-phalanxed the phalanx. Mind also that the victory ...


4

I don't have a particular source for this, but I remember my high school Latin teacher telling us that Roman wine was more like a strong, thick concentrate much stronger than the wine we drink today, intended to be diluted before drinking. Think like those 100% berry juices you can buy at health food stores in the US, that are undrinkably tart without adding ...


4

Cthonic sacrifices generally resulted in the animals being burnt entire. Totally cremating doves meant the smell of burnt feathers as well as burning meat. Normally sacrifices resulted in bones and fat being burnt for the gods on high altars. I suspect the height was not only part of the spectacle but got the greasy smoke above the heads of the crowd rather ...


4

The ancient Greeks wrote the same way as the Egyptians: on papyrus scrolls. The oldest European manuscript I know of is the Derveni papyrus which is a Greek scroll dated to 362 B.C.. The writing was made with a narrow brush rather than a pen. The Greeks also wrote on clay, such as the fragments of broken pots (ostraka). Students would write on the ground or ...


4

Your contention that "Romans seemed to outfight Macedonian phalanx pretty easily" is not really true. The critical source for you to read here is Plutarch's life of Paulus Aemilius, the Roman general who conquered Macedonia and was the victor at the key battle of Pydna (168 BC). You may also want to read the Wikipedia article on the battle. If you read ...


4

There is no mention in any Greek source of Plato travelling to India, or to any place in Asia. He did however sail to Sicily.


4

First off the Greco-Roman world extends over a long time period. Depending on how you measure it that could span a millennium. So the answer to your question changes depending on when you are travelling, (and the season of the year; some seasons you travel by sea, and some you must travel by land) and where you are travelling. Beyond that, the answer ...


4

It is very difficult to know something like this, because the archaeological remains are fragmentary and there are no contemporary written records. Estimates based on agricultural capability have too many variables of uncertainty to be reliable. The most famous piece of information concerning pre-historic Greece statistics is the Catalog of Ships, the list ...


4

The Greek word is atë (ἄτη), when not used as a proper noun but as a common noun, as seen in the canonical "The Greeks and the Irrational" by E. R. Dodds (Google Books).


3

The Wikipedia page of "oracular statements from Delphi" lists a few accounts that might apply here. One example could be the Oracle of Delphi's counsel to Philip of Macedonia. He was told, "With silver spears you may conquer the world." The straightforward reading would be to make a whole bunch of spears made of silver and go to war. But Philip wisely ...


3

I don't know yet, but there is some indirect evidence that an Indian Yogi met Socrates. Travelling far and wide was not uncommon. Shankaracharya travelled all over India on foot. So did Ramanuja. Fa hien and Hiuen Tsang travelled to India, crossing the Himalayas.


3

No, because much if not all of the Persian Fleet consisted of contributions from Greek cities and thus had "free" rowers as well. Slave rowers are really a creation of the medieval period, not ancient times, despite what Ben Hur says. Persia was a landlocked nation and had no naval tradition. However, its conquest of Asia Minor and the shores of the ...


3

I would highly recommend this podcast for more information: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00txj8d Around the 24 minute mark, Pythia is discussed. The historian on the program says that some of the women who served as Pythia likely did speak gibberish, which provided a chance for "translation" into a well-composed answer (Plutarch's theory). However, she ...


2

First of all, your assumption that slaves in Rome addressed their master as "domine" is not true. The language used in the household was completely different than the "silver" Latin you read in Cicero or Seneca. Vernacular Latin had large amounts of Greek slang in it and the lower in the class the person, the more slangy it got. Words like kurios and ...


2

You kind of answered your own question by mentioning the phalanx. First of all, you will often read some historians saying that chariots were not used by "mountain" people or that the terrain in such-and-such country was not suitable for chariots. This is not true. Macedonia is one of the most mountainous areas in Europe and they were famous for their ...


2

The Latin alphabet, as it has been mentioned so far, derives from a Greek alphabet. That is, the Chalcidic alphabet. It was widely used in the areas of Chalkida and Eretria, in the island of Euboea and found its way to cities of Southern Italy through settlers of Cumae (also see this passage). From there, it went on to become the basis for Latin. In ...


2

It was, for the most part. While there are many other writing systems, both the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets (and, in fact, the use of an alphabet – as opposed to other type of writing systems including abjads like the Arabic or Phoenician writing system) all derive from the Greek one. Definitional issues aside, the Greek alphabet has been extremely ...


2

In earlier greek texts we find the river Ganges being described as Phison. So it is natural that they knew about this river. If they knew about this river then it is sure that the river was then also famous for some reasons. May be because of mystic and Sanatana Dharma religion " Hinduism". So if Alexander can travel to India in B.C 326 . Plato may have too ...


2

While searching some more, I found an excellent resource on ancient Greek (although website is a bit slow and sometimes it throws exceptions). The word describing a state of blindness inflicted by the gods was known as θεοβλαβεία (infatuation sent by the gods, madness, blindness). I still can't find the specific source where I first saw it, but I could ...



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