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2

There is another fundamental problem in projecting back current sexual classification onto Rome. They didn't think of it as homosexuality versus heterosexuality. Rather, they thought of it as being the penetrator or the submissive partner. For a grown man to be penetrated was the shameful act. To be the dominant one, not so much. And since women were ...


2

The modern view of ancient civilization, including that of Greece and Rome, has been heavily censored. Ancient writings on these topics have been systematically expunged or destroyed over the centuries. In general, the ancients were far more promiscuous than society is today. Pederasty was considered somewhat amoral, but was widely practiced. In Rome, ...


2

Even when the Roman children were protected by law, these laws didn't apply to slave children. There was that loophole in roman law concerning slave children. So there was a little if not nothing romans (citizen) could do. Because slaves weren't considered persons,but objects instead. Something similar could happen with greeks, but as you correctly say, ...


1

That's a very interesting question, and the result does not only evolve when one deciphers a text, but also when new inscriptions are found. Thus, even though only one tablet was found outside of Crete before 1973, I would say the answer to your question is Linear A: there are 1427 Linear A documents with a total occurrence of 7362-7396 signs. The linear A ...


0

Probably the Mayan writings and inscriptions are the largest body of undecipered writings with the most historical importance. Also, do not blithely assume ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics are well understood. Many of the "translations" of hieroglyphics, especially those found in royal tombs, are highly conjectural, and we cannot really be certain what they ...


0

People may say, what they may, but I think the fundamental precondition for the industrial revolution was the printing press. It made available to the masses cheaply obtainable knowledge, without which their intellect would have gone to waste. Archimedes had ideas about calculus, that others might have expanded on, before Newton and Leibnitz, but it is hard ...


0

Because Greek intellectual giants failed to reproduce themselves, and thus died out. The following is a quote by Bertrand Russell: The industrial revolution might have taken place in antiquity if Greek intelligence had remained what it was at its best. To this it is customary to reply that slave labor, being cheap, removed the incentive to the ...


-2

Orthodox religions all stem from the same root, Isis and Osiris from the Sumerian clay tablets, the first known writings in this epoch. They even had their own "Noah" as most religions do now, just a copy. Simply a way of connecting to others. The first to come along were the Jews and Christians, but there were also the Greeks, who were polytheistic. Yet ...


1

Words like kurios and dominus are literary words that would be not normally be used in everyday speech by a slave. Plautus most famous character, the slave Epidicus, addresses his master as "ere", which is Greek slang and means "boss". Another of Plautus' slaves, Pseudolus, uses exactly the same word to address his master. If you read "Latin Forms of ...


1

Sikhism ..... they believe in One God, the True Guru, or Teacher http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikhism


5

Atenism appeared (although briefly) before either Judaism or Zoroastrianism.


5

Zoroastrism is probably the only monotheistic neighbor of Judaism that i know of, and since it originated from the 7th century BC it is about 2 centuries older then Judaism. I don't know whether it was henotheistic though.


2

Christianity and Islam The obvious candidates are Christianity and Islam, both of which are clearly monotheistic. However, both of those religions can be said to have "learned" their monotheism from the Jews. For Christianity, we have Jesus, who grew up as a Jew in Israel, and was brought up montheistic. Islam, for its part, recognizes both Moses and ...


5

Until now, British law has given priority to male over female heirs of kings. But where there were no male heirs, a girl got the nod. For instance, King Henry VIII had three (surviving, legitimate) children; Edward (the youngest), Mary, and Elizabeth. Edward, the boy, was crowned king ahead of his two older sisters. He died in adolescence (without ...


8

Thucydides sometimes does not always make a proper distinction between facts and myths. Here is an example of him extending the Illiad into his historical work seamlessly. The best proof of this is furnished by Homer. Born long after the Trojan War, he nowhere calls all of them by that name, nor indeed any of them except the followers of Achilles from ...


3

This question is problematic because people during this time simply did not view history the same way that we do today. The Homeric tales, for instance, were treated as actual history, even the bits where Odysseus meets the sirens and the land of the lotus eaters. It's not that these events were viewed as "symbolically" true or something; people really and ...


9

Britain's order of succession is determined by male-preference cognatic primogeniture (in the future it will be equal primogeniture). This allows a female to ascend the throne as queen regnant (queen in her own right, as opposed to being a consort to a king). Queens Elizabeth I & II and Queen Victoria are example of such queens. In their cases, there is ...


3

Under English law and tradition, just as the spouse of a King is a Queen consort rather than a Queen Regnant, the spouse of a Queen Regnant is a King Consort and not a King Regnant or Monarch. Other dynastic and national traditions may vary, as for example for Catherine the Great in Russia as well as her grand-mother-in-law Tsarina Catherine I. Update: In ...


2

I'll pose two alternate answers: Nothingness and Isaac Newton. The industrial revolution occurred about 100 years after Newton. Without Newton or Leibniz (or someone of equal caliber), no calculus. Without calculus, no industrial revolution. Without a proper zero, no calculus. Neither the Greeks nor the Romans could have had an industrial revolution. Their ...


4

Remember that "necessity is the mother of invention". The Hawaiians had fresh water, fruits, vegetable, fish and meat and drinking & cutting utensils easily at hand and had no need for heating or warm clothing. They had so much leisure time that they did need means of diversion, so they invented the surf board and underwater swim goggles. They also ...


3

IMHO availability of cheap slave labour made mechanization unnecessary and scarcity of educated mechanics would make attempts of automation prohibitively expensive. We can see that not only in ancient times but also well into modern age in the places or industries where manual labour was much cheaper than the cost of automation and that stalled development ...


5

Wages. Labour was too cheap for an Industrial revolution. Early industrialisation must be profitable in order to be widely adopted and sustainable. With cheap labour the replacement of human labour with machines just isn't profitable. Research and development of early machines is expensive and slow, if there is no pay off, (trey making of money but cheaper ...


1

A greek-speaking slave (δούλος, doulos) I think would call his master κύριος (translit: kurios; lord, master, sir; vocative form: κύριε). Roman was not the only language spoken in the Empire, especially amongst lower classes. Alexander's "Koine" (Common) Greek might have been more common, certainly in the early empire. The early church fathers wrote in ...


5

Some Late Punic texts (ca. 200-400 CE) were written in Latin letters, and so fully vocalized. The best treatment of these is R. M. Kerr, Latino-Punic Epigraphy. FAT ser. 2: 42. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2010. Punic certainly had vowels; the writing system didn't fully represent them (because the syllable structure of all Semitic languages makes it easy to know ...


9

Dominus, plural Domini, in ancient Rome, “master,” or “owner,” particularly of slaves. The name later became the official title for the emperor, beginning with Diocletian, who reigned from ad 284 to 305. The mutual relation of Slave and Master among the Romans was expressed by the terms Servus and Dominus; and the power and interest which the dominus had ...


3

More people. Europe in the era of the Romans has an estimated population of 30 million people, which increased to 100 million people in 1800 and now to 700 million people. You do not produce goods just for fun. You must also have people who need to buy the products so you make a profit from producing goods. And if you invent machines to work for you, you ...


7

The primary mechanisms that motivated the industrial revolution were automation and efficient utilization of natural resources to generate power to drive automation. There were certainly also social factors, but I'd prefer to focus primarily on the technical, since this seems to offer a clearer path to an answer. The Romans did harness power from gravity ...


11

The answer is threefold: 1) Transportation costs: agricultural societies had, since the beginning, been restricted by the amount of food one could produce locally. What 'freed' the British poor from having to work the land (please note I'm not arguing that this was in their favor) was the import of large amount of cheap food, as well as the materials to ...


0

At least syphilis is thought to not have existed in Europe but having been introduced there by the returning discoverers from the voyages of Columbus. Many other diseases have found their way from one continent to another through similar means, think of the plague and HIV... Of course there are many diseases that can be transmitted through sexual contact, ...



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