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The Kingdom of Aksum is dated from 100–940 CE. The sailing technology of this time frame is way beyond Egyptian papyrus rafts. This begins almost 200 years after the battle of Actium ,one of the great naval battles of the time, and in fact one of the trade partners mentioned is the Roman, and later Byzantine empire. From wiki page on Indo-Roman trade ...


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Presumably the ships of Axum were similar to the earlier ships of Egypt on the Red Sea. The ships were made of wood, and the ropes woven of papyrus. You can find more here; the ships were dismantled and stored in the caves. These ships were constructed of red cedar which had been imported from Lebanon. It is possible to use papyrus boats at sea: Thor ...


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There were many hillforts in Northern Europe built by the Celtics, some of which remain today, such as Solsbury Hill. Numerous Viking ring fortresses also exist, including Aggersborg. Of course, there is also Stonehenge in Salisbury, and in Ireland Newgrange and the fortress Dun Aonghasa. Hope this helps.


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Celtic Culture and oppidum maps of northern europe and the la tene & Hallstad migrations heat map of the megalithic cultures of europe Map of megalithic sites in england and northern europe


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The World’s Oldest Known Flag was found in 1971 by a team of archaeologists working at Dasht-e Lut in the Khabis region of eastern Iran. This record is going to prove to be hard to beat. The metal flag, known as the Shahdad Flag, is about 5,000 years old. https://historyframe.com/2016/03/08/shahdad-flag/


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The trusty wikipedia has a list encompassing the Republic: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Senators_of_the_Roman_Republic It even has some years added.


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Thucydides and Xenophon. And if you can sacrifice some credibility for entertainment, Herodotus. Also, not historians but I really recommend reading Homer, Hesiod, Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides to get a grasp of their world. Modern historians specialized in Ancient Greece I've only read Donald Kagan and Luciano Canfora. EDIT: Wikipedia Category ...


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The whole history of clothing in ancient times is more complex than we see at face value. Tyrian purple was reserved to emperors and royalty in later times not so much because it was difficult to import and thus expensive. It became a status symbol because of its price which was due to the fact that it took 12,000 snails to produce just 1.4 grams of this ...


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I feel that another contributing factor is the high variability of weather during the seasons making it more ideal to be a nomadic tribe than a settled city in North America. Also, First Nations North Americans perceived their continent as an Island, specifically Turtle Island. However as others have mentioned there are traces of some city formation ...


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Nope. There isn't. Since there is no competition with "China from China" the best way to value ceramics both yesterday and today is by weight(lighter the better), color (blues and bright whites in contrast), hardness (thin but strong), form (simple plate or a vase for holding water implying enormous strength), etc The only way a laymen might pick up a fraud ...


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Some busts and statues were made when the person was alive, others were copied from these. So in some cases one can be reasonably certain that there is a close similarity with the original. I suppose this applies to all Roman emperors, for example. Probably to the busts of some famous Greeks, like Pericles, or Greek/Macedonian rulers of Egypt and other ...


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There is an informative Wikipedia article. A (reddish) purple dye extracted from Murex sea snails found on the coast of what is now Lebanon, ancient Phoenicia was a luxury product in the ancient Mediterranean world, being rare and therefore expensive and had the useful quality that instead of fading over time when worn in sunlight, it actually became ...


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The Roman color purple might have been any shade of red or purple, or range of shades, as far as I know, unless an expert in Roman colors wants to elaborate. Of course anything colored with actual Tyrian Purple dye would have a known shade. You should remember that during the Principate period the emperor was the real but unofficial absolute ruler of the ...


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We think that both men and women wore a loincloth called a subligaculum or subligar. These were sometimes worn by men during manual labor and by upper-class men during exercise. Women often wore a leather or cloth band to support the breasts called a strophium or mamillare. For footwear as you mentioned, sandals were worn and for the most part the only ...


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The primary reason that the wearing of purple developed as a status symbol in ancient Rome is because it was expensive to import and therefore rare. Due to its rarity, it was later limited to the emporer and the upper class.


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Why were Native Americans much more under developed then their neighbors in the south. Copyright Skubasteve834, source: Wikimedia Commons, usage via CC-BY-SA. It's not quite fair to classify native North Americans as underdeveloped. The above image is of Monks Mound, a part of the Cahokia Mounds complex in southern Illinois. This mound was constructed ...



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