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4

1) Chariots never charged any formed infantry, ever. They relied on the infantry breaking first at the sight. If they did not, the chariots pivoted and used missile fire at the infantry. Horses don't run into things willingly. 2) The troops under Alexander's Personal Command were Cavalry. Not the Phalanx. 3) The Phalanx can't open ranks like that. ...


3

After re-examining the sources it appears @Oldcat is correct that it wasn't a phalanx. Instead, it seems the chariots charged at a light infantry screen of javelin throwers. This helps explains how they were able to move fast enough to open ranks around the chariots. While it wasn't the phalanx that got charged, I think the question is valid and still ...


2

First off, there are no depictions of Jesus made by contemporaries. That means any depiction you find, anywhere, is more a representation of how the artist felt like viewing Jesus than an attempt at an accurate reconstruction of the man's features. Complicating this was the iconophobic views of early Jews (backed up by the "graven image" prohibition in the ...


4

The depiction of Christ (and other entities in the Christian pantheon, and no doubt other religions as well) tend to reflect the cultural and racial background of the audience they're intended for and/or the creator. Thus, as in the early days Christianity was mostly confined to the middle east, where people have a darker skin than in northern Europe, they'd ...


1

First of all, this "hamitic" thing replete in the question is not a real scientific term at all. And that "Ham is the father of the African peoples" thing is an even more obvious myth. But the core idea of the question (or, at least, what I think is the core) has some merit. The Ancient Israelites were a group of Canaanites, a Semitic people like the ethnic ...


0

Let me give an input regarding Hinduism which is considered as a major polytheistic religion and one of the oldest in the history. Hinduism is actually have another name, 'Sanathana Dharma', which is considered as the culture of India. Even though Hinduism now considered as a religion with all essence of this culture. There are more than 33 Million Gods ...


1

A pity question. Atenism was a sect that departed from the traditional polytheistic Egyptians but did not really catch on after the death of Amenhotep. One, as mentioned above, can make a case for its brief appearance being the first recorded monotheistic belief system. Also often overlooked is that Judaism as practiced during the first temple period was ...


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Not a messenger did We send before thee without this inspiration sent by Us to him: that there is no god but I; therefore worship and serve Me. Quran (21:25) And it was already revealed to you and to those before you that if you should associate [anything] with Allah , your work would surely become worthless, and you would surely be among the losers. Quran ...


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I have to admit I prefer books containing facts, rather than theories, because I am a good theorist, so I swiftly lose interest in authors who propose a lot of half-baked ideas. This Diamond guy is not a historian or even anthropologist, just a biologist with a very scattershot knowledge of human history. Nevertheless, a very smart person can make good ...


2

Akenaten In Egypt, Pharaoh Amenhotep IV started a new monotheistic religion and renamed himself Akenaten, moving to a new capital city Armana unsullied by the normal religion. This would be about 1350 BC to 1320 BC. When he died, his son Tutankhamun reconciled with the old regime, and the city was abandoned. This heresy and the need to wipe out its ...


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Zoroastrianism Although we usually recognise Judaism as the first monotheistic faith, the title may actually go to Zoroastrianism. Zoroastrianism was established around the 6th century BCE. In a nutshell, it abandoned the previous Persian pantheon and simplified it to "two forces Spenta Mainyu (Progressive mentality) and Angra Mainyu (Destructive ...


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It is interesting to travel in time and space, exploring the source of first monotheistic religion... APEU ( as per evolving understanding) it seems, before the religion comes the language - vocabulary/ terms/associated comparisons/reflections and so on. What if one has not learnt about polytheism - this word doesnt exist in one's learning ? how would one ...


8

In an appendix to his book "When Our World Became Christian", Paul Veyne studies the extent to which the concept of monotheism applies to Judaism. His main point is that the concept of monotheism ("there is only one God") can be differentiated from monolatrism ("ye shall worship only one God") only if the idea of "a non-existent deity" can be conceptualized. ...


1

Long before Judaism the god Ahura Mazda was worshipped in Persia. They had a number of Commandments which where very simular to the Ten Commandments, it is very likely Abraham based his religion on this older one or at least borrowed some elements


27

Judaism is very old, but it was not originally monotheistic (see below). An earlier instance of monotheistic or monotheistic-esque worship occurred in the form of Atenism, the worship of the deified sun-disk Aten in Ancient Egypt. The Pharaoh Amenhotep IV (later Akhenaten), reigning around 1353/1351-1336/1334 B.C., promoted it as an arguably monotheistic ...


1

I know the Germans, not understanding bacteria et. Al. Actually thought the brewing process removed "evil spirits" from water, this explains why they also sometimes used beer in masonry and foundation construction, resulting in more than a few "drunk" (leaning) buildings when too much beer was used vs. straight water.


3

The book is well written and well explained; Jared Diamond actually takes real pain to explain that his theories are not implacable and must not be taken as a 100% reliable blueprint for predicting success or failure of any civilization (even if we could actually define what "failure" means for a civilization). The book, though, attracted criticism because ...


0

Primitive Norse and Germanic Cultures used ritual hanging to dedicate prisoners to the Gods, Odin or Wotan. From Wikipedia: Odin Worship among the Germans Human sacrifices were very frequently offered to Odin, especially prisoners taken in battle. The most common method of sacrifice was by hanging the victim on a tree; and in the poem Hdvamfil ...


1

The main impediment for a nation like the Persians is the relative lack of a standing army. The Persians were a feudal state. In order to go to war "big time" with the Romans, the King of Kings would have to convince his district "kings" to send contingents to join his own household troops. If the KofK's was a weak one, nobody would show up and the Romans ...


7

Book 22 of the Homeric Odyssey contains a rather graphic description of how Telemachus hanged his father’s unfaithful maidservants. The Odyssey is of course a work of fiction, but it is reasonable to see this passage as evidence for the use of hanging as a judicial punishment at that time. Current scholarship puts the Homeric poems around 1200 BC. Here is ...


1

The first recorded use of judicial hanging is in the Persian Empire approximately 2,500 years ago.2 [New World Encyclopedia]1 (Aside: Note that the reference is to " Richard Clark"The process of judicial hanging", Capital Punishment U.K. Retrieved April 15, 2007.", which is not currently available; you might want to check the wayback machine) Mosaic ...


7

Ballistae and other ancient pieces of "artillery" are siege engines. Their primary purpose is to provide fire support within the context of laying siege to a town or fortress; the heavy bolts could lay waste to wooden fortifications (especially the kind of light mobile protection against archers). Siege weapons are heavy, very slow to move, and have a low ...



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