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Building something as massive as the Colosseum would have required a wide range of types of labor, from unskilled slaves quarrying materials to highly skilled craftsmen and thus would encompass a range of workers and pay scales. Some slaves would have been more or less worked hard just for room and board, while others would have been well-paid for their ...


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We think that both men and women wore a loincloth called a subligaculum or subligar. These were sometimes worn by men during manual labor and by upper-class men during exercise. Women often wore a leather or cloth band to support the breasts called a strophium or mamillare. For footwear as you mentioned, sandals were worn and for the most part the only ...


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Because the Roman infantry developed a "two wave" attack structure. The phalanxes used long spears, whose advantage was that they could kill enemies at "long range" (15-20 feet). So the Romans broke up their attack into two stages. The first part was with "pilum" (throwing spears), which were launched from 50-60 feet away, and had a greater range than ...


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Procopius of Caesarea, descibing the wars against Goths in Italy mentioned the "Gothic tribes of Scirii and Alani". Scirii were Germans and Alani were of Scytic origins. Theophylact Simocatta, describing the Bizantine wars against Slavs, mentioned that (i) the Slavs are the former Getae and (ii) the Slavs are the former Goths! It seems that the Goths were a ...


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There is no analogy in this respect between the fall of the Western empire and the Eastern one. Decline of ancient scholarship happened before the main barbarian invasions, in both East and West. When the Academy in Athens was closed by the emperor's edict, the last few scholars emigrated to Persia. Many years later they were allowed to return, under the ...


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No, we do not. The origin itself is disputed. The 100 senator story is a quote from Livy, but there are alternative theories, both religious and/or hereditary in nature. There are no contemporary sources to confirm and in my opinion there have been multiple sources for what later became the dominant political class. Fact is that the patrician class ...


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Nope. There isn't. Since there is no competition with "China from China" the best way to value ceramics both yesterday and today is by weight(lighter the better), color (blues and bright whites in contrast), hardness (thin but strong), form (simple plate or a vase for holding water implying enormous strength), etc The only way a laymen might pick up a fraud ...



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