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At their peak, the slaves numbered approximately 100,000 men, more than Hannibal's Carthaginians. Having enjoyed over a century of freedom from invasion, the Romans could not conceive of such a large force on their soil, never mind one built of slaves. Crassus was one of Rome's most capable commanders, who had trained under a famous Roman general, Sulla. He ...


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I wouldn't argue that it contributed to the fall, but the military culture provided an inflexibility that prevented any sort of recovery falling crucial military defeats. To Rome, governmental leadership was seen as identical to military leadership. Many senators started out as Broad-stripped Tribunes. Praetors and Consuls often directly commanded legions in ...


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Having read all these comments, I am impressed with the amount of knowledge shared on this forum. Very informative, I am also a writer of Sci-fantasy and I found this to be an excellent well of information. But I do have to pose the question that as we talk about materials and their abundance I wonder if as a person dials back the gauge of time, how common ...


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There are some great pages on roman coinage, e.g. the formidable Roman Coins Database with more than 500 entries for roman early imperial coins. Additionally, Doug Smith's page on ancient coins has some info on roman coins from the early empire.


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It was a "quid pro quo." In theory, Macedonia would aid Carthage on land against Rome, and after a successful war on Rome, Carthage would aid Macedonia with seapower against her "Greek" enemies. Rome forestalled this by allying with Macedonia's Greek enemies in the First Macedonian War. Although the war was indecisive, Rome's allies tied up the Macedonian ...


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The three Greek philosophers were: Carneades ex Academia (Cyrene 214/3–129/8 BC), Critolaus Peripateticus (Phaselis c.200-c.118 BC) and Diogenes Stoicus (Seleucia c.230 – c. 150/140 BC). Some sources are listed in Wiki: Plutarch, Cato Maj. 22; Aulus Gellius, VII. 14; Macrobius Saturnalia i. 5; Cicero, de Orat. ii. 37, 38.


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Case for Italy and/or Vatican Italy was the place where Roman Empire originated and Rome is located. They still speak a language descendant from Latin. Rome was the most important city throughout Middle Ages and the Pope usually was the one with monopoly on conferring the imperial title. Also to become an emperor it was usually required to become king of ...


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The first issue is that the "loose barbarians", the Celts, weren't uncivilized. They built impressive oppidas and fortresses. Their society was organized and complex. Also, Germany had thick woods, while places like Gaul had wide pastures, ideal for Roman tactics. Another thing is that Caesar did struggle against the Gauls and he nearly lost. This issue of ...


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During the Punic Wars, the Macedonians allied themselves with the Carthaginians with the expectation they would be the victors of the war and therefore be on good terms with them in the future. In order to cement this, the Macedonian–Carthaginian Treaty was signed in 215 BC as recorded by Livy. On this contest, between the two most powerful people in the ...


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For some years (a couple centuries?) the official language of Byzantium was Latin; it slowly transitioned to Greek and for a time both were in use. The Turkish Archaeological Museum has a sarcophagus with the inscription in both Greek and Latin. Some of the offices of the empire had Latin titles, and the most popular public attraction was the Hippodrome -- ...


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The question is to what degree the romance language speaking ancestors of the Modern Romanians in Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia were descended from ancient Romanized Dacians and Roman colonists, and to what degree they were descended from Romance language speakers who arrived in the 3 Romanian regions from elsewhere sometime (probably over centuries) ...


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Except for those legati created by the lex Gabinia and similar laws, all legati were appointed by the Senate. The governor couldn't just appoint them by himself - although it appears that, in practice, he nominated who he wanted and the Senate confirmed it. The wikipedia quote is wrong in the sense that a legatus pro praetore only held delegated imperium. I ...


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To add my interpretation. Political and ecclesiastical ranks in the later Roman Empire: A civitas or city state - usually based on a earlier tribe - was ruled by elected magistrates. In the fifth century an imperial official with the rank of comes "count" was appointed to supervise each civitas in the western Empire. A bishop was in charge of the parish ...


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There were several reasons for 18 years old being the threshold of adulthood. The first reason was military, as embodied in the 26th Amendment. During World War II, Congress lowered the draft age from 21 to 18, more or less in line with the other major combatants. This actually became a sore point during the Vietnam War, when the slogan became, "old enough ...


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For a long time, 21 was the "age of adulthood". From Encyclopedia of Adult Development: As early as the thirteenth century, age 21 was an important marker in Britain, at least for men. This was the age, for example, when they could begin to serve as knights. It was believed that the physical requirements of combat - to wear a heavy suit of armor and ...



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