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2

It might not necessarily be problematic if the censors disagreed. Scholars have generally thought that only one censor was chosen by lot to nominate the Princeps Senatus alone. If correct, then in the event of disagreements between the censors, the chosen one would have the final say. Much support for this theory is inferred from the 209 dispute (see below), ...


0

It comes down to two issues: no army to send and no navy to get it there. The war of Hannibal and the Barcas against Rome was more or less a personal project by that family, who controlled Spain and its resources and built up their armies there. Hannibal's initial thrust across the Alps and into Italy needed to be done because Rome had complete control of ...


0

Also, in addition to my previous answer, Hannibal was never allowed to capitalize off of his battle at Cannae as every time he flipped the allegiance of a roman city, Rome would follow and flip the allegiance back. Also, Rome employed a famous strategy of avoiding conflict with the Carthaginians led by Hannibal which, coupled with Carthage's inability to ...


0

No, hasdruabal went, not by the order of carthage, but because hasdrubal and hannibal were talking and making their own agenda on how to win the war behind the cartaginians backs. Hannibal and hasdrubal were both loyal to carthage but realized carthage was not as into this war as they were due to their long-standing hate of rome, and decided to win on ther ...


4

The exact relation between Dacians and Getae is unclear; ancient sources tell us that they spoke the same language, and some of them claim that they were the same tribe under different names. They should thus be considered related, possibly identical. Wikipedia has a review of the sources. As for the connection to Goths, it was a common identification in ...


0

Dacia is a region roughly conterminus with modern Romania and lower Hungary. The Getae are a people who lived in Dacia. The Getae are mentioned by the ancient Greeks so their culture goes back to at least 400 B.C.. They are described as a Scythian race, being similar to Sarmatians and other semi-nomadic archers from that region. The Goths were from Denmark ...


1

I believe that the ax part of a fasces was symbolic of the magistrate's authority to order executions. The Romans are alleged to have also beheaded people with devices similar to guillotines. Any source on the history of the guillotine should mention some earlier devices similar to the guillotine used in various times and places. Thus if you read simply ...


6

It is Vespasian. In the Life of Vespasian from Chapter 18 of Book 8 of The Twelve Cesars by Suetonius, it says: Some one offering to convey some immense columns into the Capitol at a small expense by a mechanical contrivance, he rewarded him very handsomely for his invention, but would not accept his service, saying, "Suffer me to find maintenance ...


3

Well, the Menorah was seen later (according to one testimony): Most likely, the menorah was looted by the Vandals in the sacking of Rome in 455 CE, and taken to their capital, Carthage. The Byzantine army under General Belisarius might have removed it in 533 and brought it to Constantinople. According to Procopius, it was carried through the ...


10

First of all, Carthage did not fall in the First or Second Punic Wars. The Carthaginians were defeated twice, and compelled to surrender to particularly harsh terms the second time, but the City of Carthage itself was not conquered. Keep in mind that Carthage was not some run of the mill city-state, but rather the capital of a far flung maritime empire. ...


3

Ireland isn't "only a few miles away". The shortest sea crossings from Wales are Fishguard–Rosslare and Holyhead–Dublin, which are both 60 miles (100km). Scotland is closer: Portpatrick–Bangor is about 20 miles (35km). South-west England is about twice as far from Ireland as Wales is. The Romans never had sustained control of Scotland ...


5

Most lower class Romans and slaves wore only a knee length tunic, if they even had that much clothing. Many in modern times have indicated that wearing an undergarment was considered being naked, yet the Greek word that was usually used in the period to refer to someone who was naked was gymnos, which means a complete lack of clothing. Those who try to say ...


1

My Understanding of the Factors that Led to the Rapid Rise and Eventual Success of Christianity: I think there were several factors that predisposed Christianity1 to rapid, widespread growth. It began near the nexus of 3 continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. It began during the Roman Empire, while the Empire was still relatively strong and robust, ...


6

To invade Ireland, the Romans would first have needed to gain full control of either Wales or the Clyde estuary in Scotland, something they never succeeded in doing. The Romans very much wanted to conquer Ireland, because the Irish were a constant source of weapons and "rebellibus" support to the Scots and Welsh for attacks on Roman communities. During the ...


12

Ireland was not a threat to Rome By the time the Romans had reached Britain, their empire covered most of western Europe and their resources were becoming stretched. For most of the time they spent in Britain, they were more concerned with holding on to what they had rather than expanding further. Caesar invaded Britain in BCs 55 & 54 to see what was ...


2

The History Channel did a very interesting program on Roman crucifixion. Women were crucified facing the cross with their feet nailed to the sides of the cross through the heals. The upright of the cross became a falace between her legs. It was common to crucify people naked or with minimal clothing. It was against Roman Law to crucify a virgin so just ...


2

A friend of his named Heracleides wrote a biography, but it was lost so the details of his biography is unknown. But after reading its biography, (in my opinion ) I don't think he had any students. The quote below is from wikipedia Unlike his inventions, the mathematical writings of Archimedes were little known in antiquity. Mathematicians from ...


38

In Antiquities of the Jews, the ancient historian Josephus reported an incident where the Emperor Tiberius explicitly ordered a woman to be crucified: Mundus had a freedwoman, who had been made free by his father, whose name was Ide, one skillful in all sorts of mischief ... Tiberius inquired into the matter thoroughly by examining the priests about it, ...


7

Ancient sources are pretty vague about crucifixion. My understanding is that the naked element comes from two sources: a single sentence in the Oneirocritica and from ancient Jewish practice/law. In the Oneirocritica the reference is to "naked (gumnos) flesh" on the pole (stauron). However, this work is about dreams and the context is pretty philosophical, ...


14

Ancient Mediterranean sailcloth was made of a fine linen, which was written "linon" in Greek and "lintea" in Latin. Many ancient literary sources mention this, for example, Aeschylus, Virgil, Homer, etc. There is a book, "Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World" (1995) by Lionel Casson that goes into detail about ancient ship technology.


-1

Been a while since I played it, but I don't think it allows you to address individual centuries. If it did, you'd have over a hundred of them to control, which would be unrealistic and probably boring to boot. Seems to me you're applying the tactic at the wrong scale. @ Semaphore I suspect he doesn't mean a single line of men, but units. @ Doug B I think ...


1

OP states that "etymology above suggests that only certain Roman citizens were bound to moenus." - I don't follow that line of reasoning. I think there is insufficient evidence here to reach a strong conclusion about anything. Having said that, here is the way I would read these definitions: I concur that only certain citizens were bound to moenus. I ...


0

I don't have my references handy but my recollection is: The three-line, checkerboard formation (princeps, hastati, triarii) was used only in the Republican period, having been developed by Camillus and largely abandoned by the time of Marius. So depending on the time period you are gaming use of the three lines and checkerboard may or may not be ...


3

The frontline was still quite long: a maniple typically consisted of 120 soldiers arrayed in 3 ranks of 40 men when engaged in battle. each line had about 10 maniples and neighbouring maniples had a space of a maniple between them. That makes the frontline 19×40 = 760 men wide. Lets say that each man had a "personal space" of 1,5 meter (which is not ...



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