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The terms of the Augustan Settlement of 27 BC, where Augustus and the Senate defined respective powers, set a delay of five years from Consulship to receiving a Senatorial Province, so at least half of this gap was by law. The Senatorial provinces were, as a rule, staid and peaceful provinces as well, and had little or no military forces. The point ...


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Basically, they petered out and were replaced by new families who in some instances gratuitously grafted old illustrious names to theirs. This process took place a number of times. For example, according to one estimate, by 69 CE only 2% of the senators had republican patrician ancestry. And that was before the large influx of provincials into the ...


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(I make a few generalisations here, beware) Economy of scale is a factor in the production of maille, especially in Europe during the early medieval period. During much of the Roman period, iron was mined - mining (espeically deep mining) is an extremely labour intensive activity which can only be supported by a stable and sophisticated economy. The ...


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It might be informative to look at how people make chain-mail today, e.g. http://metalsmithing.wonderhowto.com/how-to/make-chain-mail-armor-from-start-finish-0118499/ While medieval armorers didn't have the options of working in aluminum or titanium, I doubt that much else has changed. Looks fairly labor-intensive but, as noted above, much of it is ...


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You will find some cost/price data here: List of Prices in Medieval England Image of the Armour data: Expensive is a relative and subjective term, the best that can be done to answer the question as asked is to compare the prices with typical incomes/pay. For such a we find that a labourer would earn 1-4 pence per day (the lower pay is earlier the higher ...


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Chain mail is more expensive primarily because it is more labor intensive to make it, and that has always been the case. However, anyone who wanted to use any form of armor had to decide what form of protection they wanted and then decide whether or not the extra expense was justified. Chain mail could tend to be heavier and would concentrate most of the ...


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How democratic was the Roman republic? Slaves couldn’t vote; Women couldn’t vote; You had to own property… How democratic was the American republic? Slaves couldn’t vote; Indians couldn’t vote; Women couldn’t vote; You had to own property… Maybe a better question would be: What actually is democracy?


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Better questions produce better answers. At present, this question is quite broad, so the answer is quite general. The exact rules changed over the 450 year history of the Republic. For most of that period, one had to be a member of the Senate to stand as a Consul. To be a member of the Senate required extensive land holdings and to be of noble birth. The ...


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The main reason was to reduce the ability of a single man to raise an army and wield it against the Tetrarchs. An army commander had troops (and possibly a lot of them) but did not have the infrastructure to keep them fed and supplied if he revolted. Similarly, a disaffected governor had no troops to raise a revolt. So an internal revolt had to rely on ...


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The Seven Hills of Rome is something of a misnomer, as three of them (Quirinal, Esquiline, and Viminal) are all protruding parts of one landmass. As in the Legendary Seven Kings of Rome, the attraction to seven is probably just that seven is a lucky number. Once you make the "Seven Hills" famous, it is pretty easy to pick out seven lumps in your city to ...



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