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In an article about the Column of Trajan I read that the Romans temporarily adopted arm armor (like that used by some gladiators) during the Dacian War because some of the allies of the Dacians were known for cutting off arms in battle - "disarming" their enemies.


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It's a sistrum and a bowl (patera or phiale) used for libation. The sistrum, a musical instrument used as a rattle, isn't restricted to the cult of Isis; you may encounter it also in the context of the cult of Mithras, too. See also the Encyclopedia Britannica on the sistrum. For the sistrum, cf. this statue of Isis: Photo taken by Marie-Lan Nguyen ...


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The Romans "borrowed" the Carthaginian trireme to win the Punic wars, using one that had been "beached" as a model. They added a "corvus" or hook, to allow them to board, since they were better at land fighting.


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scythed chariots were expendable charge the opposing formations and the driver dives off the back, one shot weapons the hopefully broke up the enemy formations for other troops. not a good track record. mithridatic Pontic, later achaemenid persian were etc only notable users that spring to mind, late roman empire there was some experiments but I don't think ...


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The territory of the Republic of Moldova is for more than 200 years under strong Russian influence - political, economical, cultural, linguistic etc. But up till now there is no sign of assimilation of the indigenous Romanian-speaking population. If compared with the antiquity over the last 200 years there were much more "channels" for promoting the ...


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Neither Polybius or Livy, the 2 main accounts, mention how many elephants, if any, died during the crossing of the Alps. Appian's account says that Hannibal took 37 but also does not number those lost, if any, crossing the alps. Hannibal certainly had a number of elephants at the Battle of Trebbia, though all but 1 or 7 supposedly died in the cold weather ...


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The simple answer is because bones are organic, and organic things don't last 2000 years. Even hard organic things like bones, except in very extreme (eg: rare) circumstance. Exposed bone, unless its somewhere with little life, will generally be gone within a year. Usually when we talk of archeologists finding "bones" what they have really found is fossils ...


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The absence of evidence is not proof, particularly when it comes to archeology where there's so much ground to [un]cover and so few people to do it, and in this case the proof is particularly difficult to find. We don't know Hannibal's route across the Alps. The two Roman historians who are our primary contemporary sources, Polybius and Livy, were short on ...


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Despite Lives of the Twelve Caesars there were far more emperors than months to name after them. it is not certain to me that Gaius Julius Caesar and Augustus ordered months named after themselves. It is possible that those honors ere decreed posthumously by the senate (allegedly without being prodded by the heir) - you should look it up. The senate was ...


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Actually several did: Caligula renamed September to Germanicus (Suetonius, Caligula, 15) in memory of his father. Nero renamed April to Neronium (Suetonius, Nero, 55).


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Suetonius has this to report about Tiberius, the second emperor and the third Caesar: [H]e at first played a most unassuming part, almost humbler than that of a private citizen. Of many high honours he accepted only a few of the more modest. He barely consented to allow his birthday, which came at the time of the Plebeian games in the Circus, to be ...



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