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7

A lot of it comes from conditioning and training the animal to battle conditions along with genetics. For horses, Kikkuli, the master horse trainer of Hittites in 1345 BCE, described his methods for conditioning horses or chariot warfare in one of the first horse training treatises. His methods aren't too far removed from techniques used today. Europeans, ...


6

The Wiki-biography on George E. Waring Jr., Street Commissioner of New York City 1894-1898, is informative. At the time of his appointment to this post NYC was awash in (mostly) horse manure, shin-deep, with predictions that the city's first floors would soon be manured under. Outfitting his workers in sparkling-clean white uniforms, and instilling an ...


6

This happening is known as The Great Hanoi Rat Massacre. It took place in 1902 in Hanoi, which was a French colony at that time. At the beginning action was a success, but as the bounty was granted for every rat's tail, soon the town was occupied by rats with cut out tails, that were left alive for breeding, and there were more and more rat farms in the ...


5

The German Wikipedia article lists the following numbers (most likely taken from Salvador Bofarull's book "Pigeon mail through history" which I couldn't find online, the numbers are confirmed in a bunch of other places however): Estimated 100,000 homing pigeons used during WWI, with a success rate of 95% (remarkably reliable). US Army had 54,000 homing ...


5

I think that TRiG is probably closest... The hare-haggada connection, as explained in the article, is a medieval Jewish appropriation of the hare-hunt motif, retroactively attached to the jag den Has/YaKNeHZ pun, and ultimately it probably relates to the hare/rabbit as a springtime symbol appropriate for the Pesah celebration (as well as the ...


4

All these shows (and other works of fiction) go back, at most, around 2,500-3,000 years. Anatomically modern man, so-called homo sapiens sapiens, is usually thought to have arisen around 150,000-200,000 years ago. So from an evolutionary viewpoint, these timeframes are mostly irrelevant - people haven't changed much between early Greek times and the Middle ...


4

I found an interesting paper that gives some numbers similar but slightly different from those in Pieter's source. U.S. Equine Population During Mechanization of Agriculture and Transportation: 1900 21,531,635 1905 22,077,000 1910 24,042,882 1915 26,493,000 1920 25,199,552 1925 22,081,520 1930 18,885,856 1935 16,676,000 1940 13,931,531 1945 11,629,000 1950 ...


4

As you don't state which country you are interested in (not sure how much specificity to take from your use of "cowboy"), I offer an answer for Norway, which has very good statistics. Similarly to the US (and differently from many European countries) it still had a large agricultural sector in the early 1900s. A time series for the number of horses and ...


4

An elephant is a very large animal. Putting the whole animal in armor would cost more in armor than the whole unit would be worth in warfare. (The same armor could be used to protect a large number of men.) Therefore armor was used, if at all, to protect only the most vital parts of the animal, e.g., the temples. Most of the animal was unprotected. Of ...


3

I am only guessing, but I would imagine that part of the popularity of the attitude of lions rampant (so once you allow for the relatively obvious reasons for choosing a lion as opposed to some other animal) might just be that it fits a shield or the breastpiece of a tabard nicely. All the other attitudes (except salient, maybe) are less optimised to the ...


3

Generally they were used as as shock and awe (read: point and charge) cavalry would have been. Of course, (horse) cavalry is much more versatile but did not have the same fear factor as elephants. They would sit on one flank and move to attack the side of the enemy's phalanx where they would do the most damage. Clearly, this was a dangerous tactic since ...


3

I'm looking at the list of battles involving war elephants The Battle of Ipsus wikip page, a conflict between some of the successor states of Alexander the great, has an interesting passage on elephant-cavalry interactions: "The ancient sources repeatedly emphasise the effect of elephants on horses, which are alarmed by the smell and noise of elephants and ...


2

Yup. Although not vital to the war, they were useful. First, WW1 was the first war to use chemical weapons. Due to dogs superior sense of smell, they could smell oncoming gas attacks and and alert their handlers, thus minimizing the effect of the poison gas before gas masks could be donned. Another use was guarding. This was not really specific to WW1. ...



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