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13

We can be fairly certain that humans did not live on Antarctica, the continent, before the 20th century. Since about 15 Ma, the continent has been mostly covered with ice. Ref: Trewby, Mary, ed. Antarctica: An Encyclopedia from Abbott Ice Shelf to Zooplankton. Firefly Books. ISBN 1-55297-590-8. Intermittent warm periods allowed Nothofagus shrubs to ...


12

The imperial regalia of Rome were not a single thing but a collection of various objects carried in tow during processions of the emperor. The main items were various lances and spears along with a standard, which was an embroidered banner surmounted by a gold eagle. The emperor also carried a scepter. The regalia of the Byzantines were all probably lost if ...


12

This is a marble plinth or capital for a decorative column, likely of Classical Roman origin - the harpies and the immodesty of the subjects particularly give it away. There was a major Roman city nearby at Caesarea. It will be impossible to give you more information over the internet - your best bet would be to report its discovery to the Antiquities ...


8

In the story of the Trojan War, if not necessarily in the text of Homer's Iliad, Agamemnon's wife Clytemnestra learns of the fall of Troy via a relay of fire beacons. In Aeschylus' Agamemnon, she's said to have received the news in Mycenae (approximately 400 miles away) the very same night that Troy fell, and Aeschylus describes the path of the transmitted ...


7

Perhaps the story of Odoacer is not quite the right place in which to look for a description of the insignia as they only appear there briefly for metonymycal purposes. However, something can be done from other sources. Jewelry One kind of insignia is the obvious - a crown. Another, less obvious, is a special kind of brooch. Or at least so claims Ann ...


6

It is quite possible to examine diet through archeological means (composition of bones and teeth). However, I don't know that anybody has done a systematic study of such records with an eye towards looking for vegetarianism. The one piece of similar information I am aware of is that teeth of hunter-gatherers are often discernible at a glance, due to the ...


6

I'll summarize what the Jewish Study Bible, 2nd edition says about the subject. This material is from the introduction to Exodus and two essays: "The Religion of the Bible" and "Archeology and the Hebrew Bible". Positive evidence: We know that Semites of similar ethnicity to the Hebrews had for centuries migrated to Egypt in search of food and water during ...


5

See the Vindolanda tablets as another example of preserved records on wood. These date from the Roman occupation of Britain.


5

An archaeological evidence I think could be impossible: if they analyze the content of the digestive system like they did with Ötzi,even if they can find some bodies like this preserved under some special conditions, will be evidence for a few days of diet. If they analyze some lack of nutrients in the bones that lack might be also due to some other factors, ...


5

The one pandemic disease we know of that has a good chance for having an origin in the Americas is syphilis. When it first hit Europe in 1494 it spread rapidly and the mortality rate was very high (as is typical with new diseases that hit an immunologically naieve population). As Jared Diamond describes it, "[W]hen syphilis was first definitely ...


5

For reference, here is the official classification from Wikipedia of the conditions necessary for a "pleasant" Antarctic day: Condition 3 Windspeed below 48 knots (55 miles per hour) Visibility greater than 1/4 of a mile (402 meters) Wind chill above −75 °F (−60 °C) Description: Pleasant conditions; all outside travel is permitted. Condition 3 ...


4

The article does not actually claim pre-Viking contact. We already know, from both the Icelandic Sagas and archaeology finds, that around 1000 AD, Vikings settled in Greenland, then tried it again in Newfoundland ("Vinland")(*). This latter expedition first cruised past two other pieces of land, called Helluland and Markland. These two most probably ...


4

"How likely is this pre-Viking contact looking?": Not very likely. The linked newspaper article mainly focuses on the finds and that they may be Viking, but is pretty vague on timing, talking about " from 1000 AD to 1450 AD or even earlier." and only later about dating of some yarn that "predates the Vikings". It it not clear that Sutherland (the ...


4

Not that I know of, but I'd think that such a process would be so far removed from quantifiable science that it'd be rendered pointless. The job of a historian is to make best guesses given the evidence that's presented itself. Given that it's easy for two different historians to look at the same evidence and draw different conclusions. Then without really ...


4

Yes a buried piece of wood, or other biological tissue, could survive for thousands of years without decomposing. While the conditions for this are rather specific; anaerobic and antiseptic environment or at least one which limits microbial growth. These conditions can be found in a quite few situations; tar pits, bogs, the Arctic/Antarctic, some deserts ...


3

Although opinions differ, the overwhelming academic view as things stand is that construction at Machu Picchu began around 1450. I don't think anyone is completely ruling out an earlier temple being built on the site before that, but the 'evidence' in the video is pretty scanty: it's well-established that precision stone-working had been in place in the ...


3

In many cases, during early stone structures throughout the European region, there would be "I" (Capital) shaped groves used to connect stones together (half the "i" shaped grove in each side-by-side block) particularly during difficult portions of construction. In many cases these would be filled with molten lead and this lead link would help secure the ...


3

Even in England, where given the size of the country and the number of battles you can't help tripping over them, the site of a few very important ones are missing or wrong. Bosworth field, the end of the War of the Roses is certainly commemorated in the wrong place. The site of Boudica's defeat is unknown.


3

You can find the answer to that question in Jared Diamond's book Guns, Germs and Steel. He states that people get infected by their pets and that all great epidemics (variola, tuberculosis, malaria, plague, influenza ...) evolved from animals. Microbes needs a mass of people to spread around so big societies, living in cities and connected with good trading ...


2

This controversy is analyzed in detail under http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphinx_water_erosion_hypothesis


2

In addition to the other answers I would add that Antarctica is well protected by the Westerlies, a zone of westerly winds surrounding it from 30-60° S. These bands are named "Roaring Forties", "Howling Fifties" and "Screaming Sixties", try to guess why. Apart from mostly bad weather with regular storms of hurricane force and freak waves you must cross the ...


2

That's a very interesting question, and the result does not only evolve when one deciphers a text, but also when new inscriptions are found. Thus, even though only one tablet was found outside of Crete before 1973, I would say the answer to your question is Linear A: there are 1427 Linear A documents with a total occurrence of 7362-7396 signs. The linear A ...


2

I don't see anything definitive about this. So yes, it appears to be true that there is no consensus on the plates. One likelihood is of course that they are a hoax (sadly, its been known to happen). If they end up being authentic, given where they were found, my conjecture would be that they are the only known exemplars of a proto-Incan writing system ...


2

Without seeing a photograph I cannot say for sure, but by far the most likely possibility is that what you are seeing are the remains of what was once a sheeted masonry wall. In some cases masonry walls were covered with lead or copper sheets as a form of protection. In these cases a groove, called a "raglet", was made in the stone and the sheet of lead ...


2

Many medieval buildings had (and still have) roofs made of lead sheets. This was a very reasonable material for roofs, not vulnerable to corrosion. One disadvantage is that it is very heavy. Also this was a common material for all sorts of pipes and gutters and other metal details. Even in modern times (I mean 50 years ago) lead was commonly used for ...


1

The list from the Wikipedia: Egypt – 8 Pharaoh Thutmosis I, Karnak Temple, Luxor Pharaoh Ramses II, Luxor Temple Pharaoh Hatshepsut, Karnak Temple, Luxor Pharaoh Senusret I, Al-Masalla area of Al-Matariyyah district in Heliopolis, Cairo Pharaoh Ramses III, Luxor Museum Pharaoh Ramses II, Gezira Island, Cairo, 20.4 m (67 ft)[16] ...


1

First off, it really shouldn't shock anyone that some ancient mummies in the Tarim Basin show European-esque features. That is the far, far western extreme of what is now considered China. Until as late as the middle ages (6-8 AD) an Indo-European language was spoken there. It really shouldn't be surprising that an area whose culture left behind ...


1

I'm not clear what your question is exactly. I believe it's were some of the blue-eyed or pale characters in Chinese legend based real people of European origin. Pale skin and blue eyes aren't exclusively European. Kafiristan is an example of somewhere which has blue-eyed people. While living in Kazakhstan I once met someone (an ethnic Kazakh, not a ...


1

A page from www.ancient-code.com shows up in a Google search for "Gobekli Tepe shepherd", but won't display for me (at least not right now). However it states in the search blurb: It was an old Kurdish shepherd named Savak Yildiz who discovered Göbekli Tepe in October 1994 when, spotting something, he brushed away the dust to expose a large oblong-shaped ...



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