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16

We can be fairly certain that humans did not live on Antarctica, the continent, before the 20th century. Since about 15 Ma, the continent has been mostly covered with ice. Ref: Trewby, Mary, ed. Antarctica: An Encyclopedia from Abbott Ice Shelf to Zooplankton. Firefly Books. ISBN 1-55297-590-8. Intermittent warm periods allowed Nothofagus shrubs to ...


12

The imperial regalia of Rome were not a single thing but a collection of various objects carried in tow during processions of the emperor. The main items were various lances and spears along with a standard, which was an embroidered banner surmounted by a gold eagle. The emperor also carried a scepter. The regalia of the Byzantines were all probably lost if ...


12

This is a marble plinth or capital for a decorative column, likely of Classical Roman origin - the harpies and the immodesty of the subjects particularly give it away. There was a major Roman city nearby at Caesarea. It will be impossible to give you more information over the internet - your best bet would be to report its discovery to the Antiquities ...


10

In the story of the Trojan War, if not necessarily in the text of Homer's Iliad, Agamemnon's wife Clytemnestra learns of the fall of Troy via a relay of fire beacons. In Aeschylus' Agamemnon, she's said to have received the news in Mycenae (approximately 400 miles away) the very same night that Troy fell, and Aeschylus describes the path of the transmitted ...


8

I'll summarize what the Jewish Study Bible, 2nd edition says about the subject. This material is from the introduction to Exodus and two essays: "The Religion of the Bible" and "Archeology and the Hebrew Bible". Positive evidence: We know that Semites of similar ethnicity to the Hebrews had for centuries migrated to Egypt in search of food and water during ...


7

Perhaps the story of Odoacer is not quite the right place in which to look for a description of the insignia as they only appear there briefly for metonymycal purposes. However, something can be done from other sources. Jewelry One kind of insignia is the obvious - a crown. Another, less obvious, is a special kind of brooch. Or at least so claims Ann ...


7

It is generally known as an Archaeological North Arrow. It serves several purposes all at once. The archaeologist will put this down in view of the find, oriented to true North. The scale is usually marked in centimeters, so there is a valid way of determining the size or scale of what is being photographed (many people might use something like a dollar bill ...


7

How many stones high are the pyramids of Giza? Which pyramid at Giza? They're all different. The simple answer is Cheops is now 201 and was originally about 210, but it doesn't mean what you think it means. The layer heights were not consistent, their heights were not precise, the slopes of different pyramids were not consistent, and what we see today ...


7

Several factors will have to come together: They look at patterns in the artifacts. How do they build their houses, make their tools, etc.? When many techniques match, they're assumed to be the same culture. Consider the Beaker Culture. Just one technique could be coincidence, but if many techniques match there seems to be a common culture. They detect ...


6

For reference, here is the official classification from Wikipedia of the conditions necessary for a "pleasant" Antarctic day: Condition 3 Windspeed below 48 knots (55 miles per hour) Visibility greater than 1/4 of a mile (402 meters) Wind chill above −75 °F (−60 °C) Description: Pleasant conditions; all outside travel is permitted. Condition 3 ...


6

An archaeological evidence I think could be impossible: if they analyze the content of the digestive system like they did with Ötzi,even if they can find some bodies like this preserved under some special conditions, will be evidence for a few days of diet. If they analyze some lack of nutrients in the bones that lack might be also due to some other factors, ...


6

It is quite possible to examine diet through archeological means (composition of bones and teeth). However, I don't know that anybody has done a systematic study of such records with an eye towards looking for vegetarianism. The one piece of similar information I am aware of is that teeth of hunter-gatherers are often discernible at a glance, due to the ...


6

Even in England, where given the size of the country and the number of battles you can't help tripping over them, the site of a few very important ones are missing or wrong. Bosworth field, the end of the War of the Roses is certainly commemorated in the wrong place. The site of Boudica's defeat is unknown.


6

Most likely because they never had it to start with. There are two big problems with this portion of the book's thesis: I see no evidence whatsoever put forth in the above text supporting the assertion that human women were socially equal or superior prior to the agricultural revolution. Such evidence should not be hard to come by, simply by talking with ...


5

See the Vindolanda tablets as another example of preserved records on wood. These date from the Roman occupation of Britain.


5

Yes a buried piece of wood, or other biological tissue, could survive for thousands of years without decomposing. While the conditions for this are rather specific; anaerobic and antiseptic environment or at least one which limits microbial growth. These conditions can be found in a quite few situations; tar pits, bogs, the Arctic/Antarctic, some deserts ...


5

The one pandemic disease we know of that has a good chance for having an origin in the Americas is syphilis. When it first hit Europe in 1494 it spread rapidly and the mortality rate was very high (as is typical with new diseases that hit an immunologically naieve population). As Jared Diamond describes it, "[W]hen syphilis was first definitely ...


5

Such stippling is a common feature at prehistoric Maltese sites. They are often considered a primitive decorative pattern - somewhat of a forerunner of a modern art form. It is the best preserved of all the Maltese temples ... The two left-hand lobed chambers are linked by a trilith niche of stones decorated by stippling; the inner of these two chambers ...


4

The article does not actually claim pre-Viking contact. We already know, from both the Icelandic Sagas and archaeology finds, that around 1000 AD, Vikings settled in Greenland, then tried it again in Newfoundland ("Vinland")(*). This latter expedition first cruised past two other pieces of land, called Helluland and Markland. These two most probably ...


4

"How likely is this pre-Viking contact looking?": Not very likely. The linked newspaper article mainly focuses on the finds and that they may be Viking, but is pretty vague on timing, talking about " from 1000 AD to 1450 AD or even earlier." and only later about dating of some yarn that "predates the Vikings". It it not clear that Sutherland (the ...


4

Not that I know of, but I'd think that such a process would be so far removed from quantifiable science that it'd be rendered pointless. The job of a historian is to make best guesses given the evidence that's presented itself. Given that it's easy for two different historians to look at the same evidence and draw different conclusions. Then without really ...


4

This is an incomplete answer so far. Any additions and suggestions are welcome. Heliopolis myth is based upon the excerpt from The Bremner-Rhind Papyrus known as The Book of Knowing of the Creations of Ra. English translation available online. Memphis myth is based upon The Shabaka Stone. English translation available online. Hermopolis myth is compiled ...


3

Although opinions differ, the overwhelming academic view as things stand is that construction at Machu Picchu began around 1450. I don't think anyone is completely ruling out an earlier temple being built on the site before that, but the 'evidence' in the video is pretty scanty: it's well-established that precision stone-working had been in place in the ...


3

In many cases, during early stone structures throughout the European region, there would be "I" (Capital) shaped groves used to connect stones together (half the "i" shaped grove in each side-by-side block) particularly during difficult portions of construction. In many cases these would be filled with molten lead and this lead link would help secure the ...


3

You can find the answer to that question in Jared Diamond's book Guns, Germs and Steel. He states that people get infected by their pets and that all great epidemics (variola, tuberculosis, malaria, plague, influenza ...) evolved from animals. Microbes needs a mass of people to spread around so big societies, living in cities and connected with good trading ...


3

The thing that seems to have been glassed over here is that the Vettii brothers were Freedmen themselves.The following is from the MIT source mentioned above: The very fact that these two brothers were able to rise from the status of slaves to wealthy merchants speaks to the social mobility within their society. It is theorized that the Vettii ...


2

This controversy is analyzed in detail under http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphinx_water_erosion_hypothesis


2

That's a very interesting question, and the result does not only evolve when one deciphers a text, but also when new inscriptions are found. Thus, even though only one tablet was found outside of Crete before 1973, I would say the answer to your question is Linear A: there are 1427 Linear A documents with a total occurrence of 7362-7396 signs. The linear A ...


2

Without seeing a photograph I cannot say for sure, but by far the most likely possibility is that what you are seeing are the remains of what was once a sheeted masonry wall. In some cases masonry walls were covered with lead or copper sheets as a form of protection. In these cases a groove, called a "raglet", was made in the stone and the sheet of lead ...


2

Many medieval buildings had (and still have) roofs made of lead sheets. This was a very reasonable material for roofs, not vulnerable to corrosion. One disadvantage is that it is very heavy. Also this was a common material for all sorts of pipes and gutters and other metal details. Even in modern times (I mean 50 years ago) lead was commonly used for ...



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