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The imperial regalia of Rome were not a single thing but a collection of various objects carried in tow during processions of the emperor. The main items were various lances and spears along with a standard, which was an embroidered banner surmounted by a gold eagle. The emperor also carried a scepter. The regalia of the Byzantines were all probably lost if ...


7

Perhaps the story of Odoacer is not quite the right place in which to look for a description of the insignia as they only appear there briefly for metonymycal purposes. However, something can be done from other sources. Jewelry One kind of insignia is the obvious - a crown. Another, less obvious, is a special kind of brooch. Or at least so claims Ann ...


6

I'll summarize what the Jewish Study Bible, 2nd edition says about the subject. This material is from the introduction to Exodus and two essays: "The Religion of the Bible" and "Archeology and the Hebrew Bible". Positive evidence: We know that Semites of similar ethnicity to the Hebrews had for centuries migrated to Egypt in search of food and water during ...


5

See the Vindolanda tablets as another example of preserved records on wood. These date from the Roman occupation of Britain.


4

The article does not actually claim pre-Viking contact. We already know, from both the Icelandic Sagas and archaeology finds, that around 1000 AD, Vikings settled in Greenland, then tried it again in Newfoundland ("Vinland")(*). This latter expedition first cruised past two other pieces of land, called Helluland and Markland. These two most probably ...


4

"How likely is this pre-Viking contact looking?": Not very likely. The linked newspaper article mainly focuses on the finds and that they may be Viking, but is pretty vague on timing, talking about " from 1000 AD to 1450 AD or even earlier." and only later about dating of some yarn that "predates the Vikings". It it not clear that Sutherland (the ...


4

Yes a buried piece of wood, or other biological tissue, could survive for thousands of years without decomposing. While the conditions for this are rather specific; anaerobic and antiseptic environment or at least one which limits microbial growth. These conditions can be found in a quite few situations; tar pits, bogs, the Arctic/Antarctic, some deserts ...


3

Although opinions differ, the overwhelming academic view as things stand is that construction at Machu Picchu began around 1450. I don't think anyone is completely ruling out an earlier temple being built on the site before that, but the 'evidence' in the video is pretty scanty: it's well-established that precision stone-working had been in place in the ...


3

In many cases, during early stone structures throughout the European region, there would be "I" (Capital) shaped groves used to connect stones together (half the "i" shaped grove in each side-by-side block) particularly during difficult portions of construction. In many cases these would be filled with molten lead and this lead link would help secure the ...


2

Many medieval buildings had (and still have) roofs made of lead sheets. This was a very reasonable material for roofs, not vulnerable to corrosion. One disadvantage is that it is very heavy. Also this was a common material for all sorts of pipes and gutters and other metal details. Even in modern times (I mean 50 years ago) lead was commonly used for ...


2

I don't see anything definitive about this. So yes, it appears to be true that there is no consensus on the plates. One likelihood is of course that they are a hoax (sadly, its been known to happen). If they end up being authentic, given where they were found, my conjecture would be that they are the only known exemplars of a proto-Incan writing system ...


2

Without seeing a photograph I cannot say for sure, but by far the most likely possibility is that what you are seeing are the remains of what was once a sheeted masonry wall. In some cases masonry walls were covered with lead or copper sheets as a form of protection. In these cases a groove, called a "raglet", was made in the stone and the sheet of lead ...


2

Each institution has there own cataloguing system. In addition to that the archaeologist, if any, will have their own identification system which is usually dig-specific. So, for example, items dug up one season might have a different coding than those dug up the previous season. It all depends on the archaeologist. Ideally you would give all the numbers ...


1

According to Ancient American (No. 68), this "Zodiac Plate" is a grid of fifty-six symbols which are embossed on a 51x13 inch oblong sheet of unoxidized copper alloy. Fell Barry considered this a Paphian script which accompanying the corresponding Zodiac sings. References: Fell, Barry, 1985, Perietal Inscriptions of the Anubis Caves, Epigraphic Society ...


1

The list from the Wikipedia: Egypt – 8 Pharaoh Thutmosis I, Karnak Temple, Luxor Pharaoh Ramses II, Luxor Temple Pharaoh Hatshepsut, Karnak Temple, Luxor Pharaoh Senusret I, Al-Masalla area of Al-Matariyyah district in Heliopolis, Cairo Pharaoh Ramses III, Luxor Museum Pharaoh Ramses II, Gezira Island, Cairo, 20.4 m (67 ft)[16] ...


1

First off, it really shouldn't shock anyone that some ancient mummies in the Tarim Basin show European-esque features. That is the far, far western extreme of what is now considered China. Until as late as the middle ages (6-8 AD) an Indo-European language was spoken there. It really shouldn't be surprising that an area whose culture left behind ...


1

I'm not clear what your question is exactly. I believe it's were some of the blue-eyed or pale characters in Chinese legend based real people of European origin. Pale skin and blue eyes aren't exclusively European. Kafiristan is an example of somewhere which has blue-eyed people. While living in Kazakhstan I once met someone (an ethnic Kazakh, not a ...



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