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12

The imperial regalia of Rome were not a single thing but a collection of various objects carried in tow during processions of the emperor. The main items were various lances and spears along with a standard, which was an embroidered banner surmounted by a gold eagle. The emperor also carried a scepter. The regalia of the Byzantines were all probably lost if ...


7

Perhaps the story of Odoacer is not quite the right place in which to look for a description of the insignia as they only appear there briefly for metonymycal purposes. However, something can be done from other sources. Jewelry One kind of insignia is the obvious - a crown. Another, less obvious, is a special kind of brooch. Or at least so claims Ann ...


7

I'll summarize what the Jewish Study Bible, 2nd edition says about the subject. This material is from the introduction to Exodus and two essays: "The Religion of the Bible" and "Archeology and the Hebrew Bible". Positive evidence: We know that Semites of similar ethnicity to the Hebrews had for centuries migrated to Egypt in search of food and water during ...


7

It is generally known as an Archaeological North Arrow. It serves several purposes all at once. The archaeologist will put this down in view of the find, oriented to true North. The scale is usually marked in centimeters, so there is a valid way of determining the size or scale of what is being photographed (many people might use something like a dollar bill ...


6

Most likely because they never had it to start with. There are two big problems with this portion of the book's thesis: I see no evidence whatsoever put forth in the above text supporting the assertion that human women were socially equal or superior prior to the agricultural revolution. Such evidence should not be hard to come by, simply by talking with ...


6

How many stones high are the pyramids of Giza? Which pyramid at Giza? They're all different. The simple answer is Cheops is now 201 and was originally about 210, but it doesn't mean what you think it means. The layer heights were not consistent, their heights were not precise, the slopes of different pyramids were not consistent, and what we see ...


5

See the Vindolanda tablets as another example of preserved records on wood. These date from the Roman occupation of Britain.


5

Yes a buried piece of wood, or other biological tissue, could survive for thousands of years without decomposing. While the conditions for this are rather specific; anaerobic and antiseptic environment or at least one which limits microbial growth. These conditions can be found in a quite few situations; tar pits, bogs, the Arctic/Antarctic, some deserts ...


5

Such stippling is a common feature at prehistoric Maltese sites. They are often considered a primitive decorative pattern - somewhat of a forerunner of a modern art form. It is the best preserved of all the Maltese temples ... The two left-hand lobed chambers are linked by a trilith niche of stones decorated by stippling; the inner of these two chambers ...


4

This is an incomplete answer so far. Any additions and suggestions are welcome. Heliopolis myth is based upon the excerpt from The Bremner-Rhind Papyrus known as The Book of Knowing of the Creations of Ra. English translation available online. Memphis myth is based upon The Shabaka Stone. English translation available online. Hermopolis myth is compiled ...


3

In many cases, during early stone structures throughout the European region, there would be "I" (Capital) shaped groves used to connect stones together (half the "i" shaped grove in each side-by-side block) particularly during difficult portions of construction. In many cases these would be filled with molten lead and this lead link would help secure the ...


2

I don't see anything definitive about this. So yes, it appears to be true that there is no consensus on the plates. One likelihood is of course that they are a hoax (sadly, its been known to happen). If they end up being authentic, given where they were found, my conjecture would be that they are the only known exemplars of a proto-Incan writing system ...


2

In reference to the lead sheets between the Parthenon stones talked about by user3079666 Apr 15 '15 at 12:54, it was common in medieval and ancient masonry to place lead sheets between load bearing stone blocks. The lead would deform to fill the irregularities and evenly distribute the load, keeping the stones from failing due to the load being concentrated ...


2

Without seeing a photograph I cannot say for sure, but by far the most likely possibility is that what you are seeing are the remains of what was once a sheeted masonry wall. In some cases masonry walls were covered with lead or copper sheets as a form of protection. In these cases a groove, called a "raglet", was made in the stone and the sheet of lead ...


2

Many medieval buildings had (and still have) roofs made of lead sheets. This was a very reasonable material for roofs, not vulnerable to corrosion. One disadvantage is that it is very heavy. Also this was a common material for all sorts of pipes and gutters and other metal details. Even in modern times (I mean 50 years ago) lead was commonly used for ...


2

Each institution has there own cataloguing system. In addition to that the archaeologist, if any, will have their own identification system which is usually dig-specific. So, for example, items dug up one season might have a different coding than those dug up the previous season. It all depends on the archaeologist. Ideally you would give all the numbers ...


1

Well, I don't know much about bonobos, but many primate communities consist of a group of females /young with a dominant male, who guards his access to females and resources from others. However, I would suggest, off the top of my head, that once property eg fields, woods, etc - became a distinct concept, it was down to who could get it, keep it and ...


1

There are various chronologies floating around for Hammurabi's reign. So that will naturally produce some variation. Wikipedia seems to currently be favoring the middle one, which would indeed put the code at about 1750 BC. However, none of their listed chronologies vary by that much. Even their "Ultra Long" only backs him up to about 1900 BC. One thing I ...


1

According to Ancient American (No. 68), this "Zodiac Plate" is a grid of fifty-six symbols which are embossed on a 51x13 inch oblong sheet of unoxidized copper alloy. Fell Barry considered this a Paphian script which accompanying the corresponding Zodiac sings. References: Fell, Barry, 1985, Perietal Inscriptions of the Anubis Caves, Epigraphic Society ...


1

The list from the Wikipedia: Egypt – 8 Pharaoh Thutmosis I, Karnak Temple, Luxor Pharaoh Ramses II, Luxor Temple Pharaoh Hatshepsut, Karnak Temple, Luxor Pharaoh Senusret I, Al-Masalla area of Al-Matariyyah district in Heliopolis, Cairo Pharaoh Ramses III, Luxor Museum Pharaoh Ramses II, Gezira Island, Cairo, 20.4 m (67 ft)[16] ...



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