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17

Pass-thru closet designs like the one in the drawing were common in houses and apartments built during the first half of the 20th century. They lost popularity by the 1960's when squeezing the most usable space from a home plan became most important. If you look at photos of homes/apartments from this era you'll see numerous examples. The hallway looks like ...


16

South East Asia (SEA) isn't totally full of sky-scrapers-- just the wealthy cities like Hong Kong, Singapore, or Shen Zhen. What all these cities have in common is fast, recent growth and limited space. England or France, or many other European states have been developing for hundreds of years. 200 years ago, there was no technology for sky scrapers; so, ...


13

Technically, Tokyo, Hong-Kong, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Taipei, are NOT in South East Asia. They are in Asia, which hosts 60% of the world's current human population. Having 60% of the world's population seems like a valid reason to have a good proportion of the skyscrapers. That being said, the small number of skyscrapers in Europe can not be denied. In ...


12

They used lots of very large, very heavy stones. You will note that these constructions did not have large internal air pockets relative to volume. They qualify as monuments or fortifications more than inhabitable buildings with a decent amount of floorspace. Having arches or domes or any large enclosed internal space was considered the height of ...


10

Apart from leather hinges that were used even when iron was common (but not so common as to be cheap), there existed the different mounting of the door. I have heard about its use from my grandfather, when I asked for explanation about what is the "heel" of the door in Russian fairy-tales. The whole side of the door frame worked as a huge hinge - this side ...


9

There are many reasons for why cities seem to have an inordinate amount of churches for the population. The first of this is that some churches are never built as public churches. Many churches are built to show off how devout and wealthy you are. Kościół św. Wojciecha fits at best a 100 people standing up, and is clearly one of those churches. Also ...


8

When the chimney became popular, 12C for castles and high status buildings, 15-16century for regular houses. Without a chimney you have a central hearth and the smoke rises to vents in the eaves, so everybody who wants to be warm has to be in the large single room. Once chmineys are invented you need somewhere to build them. If you have a castle you can put ...


8

For the most part, you would be talking about what is referred to as vernacular architecture. This was pretty much enforced until the last couple of generations, as "architect" is a licenced profession in the USA, and African Americans (and women) had trouble getting themseleves licenced. Paul Williams became the first in 1923, although census results in ...


8

In Germany employees have the right to daylight at their workplace. This is not easy in a skyscraper, which often has a huge core of rooms without any daylight. There might be some information in DIN EN 12464-1 Licht und Beleuchtung – Beleuchtung von Arbeitsstätten – Teil 1: Arbeitsstätten in Innenräume


7

If I want to occupy space in a major city I have three choices. Build a new skyscraper (possibly by proxy in the sense that I occupy space in a skyscraper built by someone else who was prepared to erect the building only because he anticipated my and others' demand for it). Occupy existing space in low-rise structures. Build new low-rise structures on ...


7

It was likely a conversion from 3 19th century tenement rooms to an apartment compliant with later NYC building codes. NYC had city-specific building codes until 2008. That interior window may have been a door, or it may have been an interior window to provide some light to an apartment/room without access to natural light. (Yes, these existed.) My guess is ...


7

To expand on NewAlexandria's answer: Europe has a well developed planning and zoning regime. Obtaining planning approval for a building that is not in keeping with the existing stock is a long process that will usually meet with either failure or limitations on the design/ profile. On of the reasons the shard is the shape it is was to prevent existing ...


7

The site www.cheops-pyramide.ch is about how Egyptians were able to achieve an incredible precision when measuring with simple techniques. I'm going to summarize it. 1. Right angles in the corner The base of the Cheops pyramid forms a perfect square - the deviation from the 90° angle is a maximum of one minute, which is very precise when you consider the ...


7

Terrazza Martini Tower (former name, formal name is Piacentini Tower) is a highrise building located in Genoa, Italy. Construction on the building began in 1935, and finished in 1940. It was designed by Marcello Piacentini and Angelo Invernizzi. It has 31 floors, and contains office spaces. Its roof height is 108 m, and counting its spire, the full building ...


7

How many stones high are the pyramids of Giza? Which pyramid at Giza? They're all different. The simple answer is Cheops is now 201 and was originally about 210, but it doesn't mean what you think it means. The layer heights were not consistent, their heights were not precise, the slopes of different pyramids were not consistent, and what we see ...


7

Both Romanesque and Gothic architecture were already coined by the timeframe specified. I'm not really sure what Baroque would've been called in the 1600s when it was still in its formative years. However, French architecture came to be named after her reigning monarchs. Thus, before the name Baroque was coined, the style of Versailles had been referred to ...


6

In the Late Republic, Marcus Licinius Crassus organized the only Fire Brigade in Rome - but only fought fires that threatened buildings that Crassus owned. According to this translation of Plutarch: Moreover, observing how extremely subject the city was to fire and falling down of houses, by reason of their height and their standing so near together, he ...


6

There is a lot to learn about a society from its buildings, especially if you know what they are used for. For example, find the largest and most decorated buildings (not meaning just decoration, but things like enormous windows, big halls, dramatic stairways, no smaller buildings near them). Are they: for religious activities? for watching people compete ...


6

(Disclaimer: I've not seen that documentary so I'm sure what exactly it said.) Sort of. In a literal sense, Angkor Wat was built upon a sea of groundwater. The city was built in a very wet and water-rich area; much of this water found its way underground. At the lower levels, the water fills up all the pores and holes in the sandy soil. The water table ...


6

This is the most prominent of the inscriptions on the Grand Colonnade in Palmyra. It is a bilingual inscription dedicating the column in Greek and Palmyrene. The Greek portion of the inscription is as follows: ΗΒΟΥΛΗΚΑΙΟΔΗΜΟΣ ΙΟΥΛΙΟΝΑΥΡΗΛΙΟΝΖΗΝΟΒΙΟΝ ΤΟΥΚΑΙΖΑΒΔΙΛΑΝΔΙϚΜΑΛ ΧΟΥΤΟΥΝΑΣΣΟΥΜΟΥΣΤΡΑΤΗ ΓΗΣΑΝΤΑΕΝΕΠΙΔΗΜΙΑΘΕΟΥ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥΚΑΙΥΠΗΝΡΕΤΗ ...


5

The exact methods used to construct the great pyramids are not known. Currently the authoritative work on this subject is a book by the German, Dieter Arnold "Building in Egypt: Pharaonic Stone Masonry". Personally I find the book by Somers and Engelbach entitled "Ancient Egyptian Construction and Architecture" to be superior in some respects, although it is ...


5

Here's a picture of the fallen columns at Olympia: Here's one from Ephesus: Those puppies look pretty solid to me.


5

Pragmatically, because: Europe has a long history of great architecture, which is preserved even in the face of modern developments. the density of existing metro spaces makes it difficult to site a major project where it will get the appropriate attention. If there is space for it, it may be too far away from the metro centers skyscrapers aint all that, ...


5

The painter was born in Vienna as Friedrich Stowasser; he and his parents were Austrians. His artistic name “Hundertwasser” does in fact represent a translation of the Slavic sto to German Hundert. According to etymologists the name Stowasser is actually a reinterpretation of the name Stabossener, from the place name Stabossen in what is now the Czech ...


5

Most buildings are fundamentally functional, which means the architecture of a society also gives us an idea of how it's people lived. For example, earlier castles with no separate dining rooms for lords and peasants suggest that the two classes were closer than is usually the image of medieval life. Later layouts of separate quarters indicates that over ...


5

For a pyramid to be "half an octahedron", its height must be the width divided by sqrt(2). Examination of the List of Egyptian pyramids shows that this is not the case. E.g., Sneferu: 220/(105*sqrt(2)) = 1.481557 Khufu: 230.3/(146.6*sqrt(2)) = 1.110823 Menkaure: 103.4/(65.5*sqrt(2)) = 1.116257 i.e., they are flatter than "half an octahedron".


5

The Nabateans had given up the nomadic life long before the construction of the most famous buildings at Petra, such as the Treasury in the 1st century AD. Petra had been the Nabatean capital for around 400 years at this point, and the Nabateans had been Hellenized since 150 BC--they were even ruled by kings with names like Aretas III Philhellene. By the ...


5

The statement that the Tanjore Brihadeeswarar Temple or Periya Kovil has more stones than the Giza pyramid is highly doubtful. Here is why: First let us set out some assumptions so as to help us calculate the size of both monuments, otherwise the only way to settle the question is to go and count every block which would be rather tedious. The assumptions I ...


4

There are a couple of factors here I haven't seen mentioned: Skyscrapers are generally office buildings, often owned by a single company. Asian skyscrapers often mean to represent economical success of a company. Buildings in countries like Japan are generally built for short term, couple of decades, no more. Also, centralized policy on architecture is ...



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