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16

Pass-thru closet designs like the one in the drawing were common in houses and apartments built during the first half of the 20th century. They lost popularity by the 1960's when squeezing the most usable space from a home plan became most important. If you look at photos of homes/apartments from this era you'll see numerous examples. The hallway looks like ...


10

South East Asia (SEA) isn't totally full of sky-scrapers-- just the wealthy cities like Hong Kong, Singapore, or Shen Zhen. What all these cities have in common is fast, recent growth and limited space. England or France, or many other European states have been developing for hundreds of years. 200 years ago, there was no technology for sky scrapers; so, ...


10

They used lots of very large, very heavy stones. You will note that these constructions did not have large internal air pockets relative to volume. They qualify as monuments or fortifications more than inhabitable buildings with a decent amount of floorspace. Having arches or domes or any large enclosed internal space was considered the height of ...


9

There are many reasons for why cities seem to have an inordinate amount of churches for the population. The first of this is that some churches are never built as public churches. Many churches are built to show off how devout and wealthy you are. Kościół św. Wojciecha fits at best a 100 people standing up, and is clearly one of those churches. Also ...


7

For the most part, you would be talking about what is referred to as vernacular architecture. This was pretty much enforced until the last couple of generations, as "architect" is a licenced profession in the USA, and African Americans (and women) had trouble getting themseleves licenced. Paul Williams became the first in 1923, although census results in ...


6

In the Late Republic, Marcus Licinius Crassus organized the only Fire Brigade in Rome - but only fought fires that threatened buildings that Crassus owned. According to this translation of Plutarch: Moreover, observing how extremely subject the city was to fire and falling down of houses, by reason of their height and their standing so near together, he ...


6

When the chimney became popular, 12C for castles and high status buildings, 15-16century for regular houses. Without a chimney you have a central hearth and the smoke rises to vents in the eaves, so everybody who wants to be warm has to be in the large single room. Once chmineys are invented you need somewhere to build them. If you have a castle you can put ...


6

Technically, Tokyo, Hong-Kong, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Taipei, are NOT in South East Asia. They are in Asia, which hosts 60% of the world's current human population. Having 60% of the world's population seems like a valid reason to have a good proportion of the skyscrapers. That being said, the small number of skyscrapers in Europe can not be denied. In ...


6

There is a lot to learn about a society from its buildings, especially if you know what they are used for. For example, find the largest and most decorated buildings (not meaning just decoration, but things like enormous windows, big halls, dramatic stairways, no smaller buildings near them). Are they: for religious activities? for watching people compete ...


5

It was likely a conversion from 3 19th century tenement rooms to an apartment compliant with later NYC building codes. NYC had city-specific building codes until 2008. That interior window may have been a door, or it may have been an interior window to provide some light to an apartment/room without access to natural light. (Yes, these existed.) My guess is ...


5

Here's a picture of the fallen columns at Olympia: Here's one from Ephesus: Those puppies look pretty solid to me.


5

Most buildings are fundamentally functional, which means the architecture of a society also gives us an idea of how it's people lived. For example, earlier castles with no separate dining rooms for lords and peasants suggest that the two classes were closer than is usually the image of medieval life. Later layouts of separate quarters indicates that over ...


4

The painter was born in Vienna as Friedrich Stowasser; he and his parents were Austrians. His artistic name “Hundertwasser” does in fact represent a translation of the Slavic sto to German Hundert. According to etymologists the name Stowasser is actually a reinterpretation of the name Stabossener, from the place name Stabossen in what is now the Czech ...


4

I'm a specialist of Japan not China but many influences including architecture came from China to Japan. Japan, South Korea and China all had their own long architectural histories. In addition to the information on roof charms already supplied, various symbols were used there for the protection of buildings. In particular is it typical to see ornamental ...


4

For a pyramid to be "half an octahedron", its height must be the width divided by sqrt(2). Examination of the List of Egyptian pyramids shows that this is not the case. E.g., Sneferu: 220/(105*sqrt(2)) = 1.481557 Khufu: 230.3/(146.6*sqrt(2)) = 1.110823 Menkaure: 103.4/(65.5*sqrt(2)) = 1.116257 i.e., they are flatter than "half an octahedron".


3

The production designer for Die Nibelungen was the enormously creative Otto Hunte (b. 1881 d. 1960). In this photograph he is seen standing at far right, next to Fritz Lang. He was also in charge of production design for Metropolis, Der blaue Engel, Die drei von der Tankstelle and other classics of German cinema, sadly also including the Nazi big-budget ...


3

Renaissance architects absolutely did copy paste from the classical world. As for the two specific points Roark makes about the Parthenon (the triglyphs and column fluting), the short answer is that we can't be sure. I don't know of any evidence on the origins of column fluting, but there's this on the triglyphs: From A World History of Architecture by ...


3

In Germany employees have the right to daylight at their workplace. This is not easy in a skyscraper, which often has a huge core of rooms without any daylight. There might be some information in DIN EN 12464-1 Licht und Beleuchtung – Beleuchtung von Arbeitsstätten – Teil 1: Arbeitsstätten in Innenräume


3

The hallway window provides light to the hallway, obviously (the light passes in a direct line through the living room window).


2

To expand on NewAlexandria's answer: Europe has a well developed planning and zoning regime. Obtaining planning approval for a building that is not in keeping with the existing stock is a long process that will usually meet with either failure or limitations on the design/ profile. On of the reasons the shard is the shape it is was to prevent existing ...


2

If I want to occupy space in a major city I have three choices. Build a new skyscraper (possibly by proxy in the sense that I occupy space in a skyscraper built by someone else who was prepared to erect the building only because he anticipated my and others' demand for it). Occupy existing space in low-rise structures. Build new low-rise structures on ...


2

This controversy is analyzed in detail under http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphinx_water_erosion_hypothesis


2

The Basilica was built next to a bell tower built in 1414. Although the English Wikipedia article states that Alberti's restoration began in 1462, most of the other sources that I found state 1472. Also, Alberti sent a description and a drawing of the proposed site to Gonzago (the patron) in 1470, after 1462. The construction began in June 1472, shortly ...


2

Eastern Europe is a very large area, including Czekhia, Poland, Hungary, East Prussia on one side and Russian principalities on the other side. Architecture was very different. In the East (the Orthodox Russian principalities) most of the buildings were made of wood and I suppose nothing survived. The only exception is churches some of which were built of ...


2

Timber framed buildings cannot go above three floors (about 50 feet) because beyond that they cannot hold up their own weight. Often buildings would be constructed with the first or second floor made of masonry and then wooden floors above. The "average" number of floors in the middle of a city during the Renaissance would be two. Here is Dürer's "St. ...


1

Firstly "Hundertwasser" is German and means "Hundred water" (Friedensreich means both "rich of peace" and "realm of peace") so his name change didn't really change the meaning of that name. He was born in Vienna, which is now in Austria. Wikipedia He was born in 1928; His name suggests Czech origin so I assume that his parents were born in what now is the ...


1

While 19 churches and chapels in a compact downtown core may seem like a lot in todays world, it is not so many in historical terms. A church that holds more than 1000 people is a large church, and a cathedral that holds more than 1500 people is a large cathedral (St. Paul's seats 3,500 and Westminster Abbey 2,000). In a society where everyone not ...


1

Short Answer: No. Long answer: No, there probably was nothing like African American architectural style in the early twentieth century. As you noted in your question African Americans moved from the South to the North in large numbers at the beginning of the 20th century. This was largely due to the beginning of the Jim Crow era in the South. As newcomers ...



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