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13

Pass-thru closet designs like the one in the drawing were common in houses and apartments built during the first half of the 20th century. They lost popularity by the 1960's when squeezing the most usable space from a home plan became most important. If you look at photos of homes/apartments from this era you'll see numerous examples. The hallway looks like ...


10

South East Asia (SEA) isn't totally full of sky-scrapers-- just the wealthy cities like Hong Kong, Singapore, or Shen Zhen. What all these cities have in common is fast, recent growth and limited space. England or France, or many other European states have been developing for hundreds of years. 200 years ago, there was no technology for sky scrapers; so, ...


10

They used lots of very large, very heavy stones. You will note that these constructions did not have large internal air pockets relative to volume. They qualify as monuments or fortifications more than inhabitable buildings with a decent amount of floorspace. Having arches or domes or any large enclosed internal space was considered the height of ...


9

Modern scientific and mathematical knowledge was not necessary for building structures that would last a long time. For that, empirical knowledge, based on experience, was sufficient. History of structural engineering: Pyramids were the most common major structures built by ancient civilizations because the structural form of a pyramid is inherently ...


9

There are many reasons for why cities seem to have an inordinate amount of churches for the population. The first of this is that some churches are never built as public churches. Many churches are built to show off how devout and wealthy you are. Kościół św. Wojciecha fits at best a 100 people standing up, and is clearly one of those churches. Also ...


7

For the most part, you would be talking about what is referred to as vernacular architecture. This was pretty much enforced until the last couple of generations, as "architect" is a licenced profession in the USA, and African Americans (and women) had trouble getting themseleves licenced. Paul Williams became the first in 1923, although census results in ...


6

In the Late Republic, Marcus Licinius Crassus organized the only Fire Brigade in Rome - but only fought fires that threatened buildings that Crassus owned. According to this translation of Plutarch: Moreover, observing how extremely subject the city was to fire and falling down of houses, by reason of their height and their standing so near together, he ...


6

Technically, Tokyo, Hong-Kong, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Taipei, are NOT in South East Asia. They are in Asia, which hosts 60% of the world's current human population. Having 60% of the world's population seems like a valid reason to have a good proportion of the skyscrapers. That being said, the small number of skyscrapers in Europe can not be denied. In ...


6

When the chimney became popular, 12C for castles and high status buildings, 15-16century for regular houses. Without a chimney you have a central hearth and the smoke rises to vents in the eaves, so everybody who wants to be warm has to be in the large single room. Once chmineys are invented you need somewhere to build them. If you have a castle you can put ...


5

Here's a picture of the fallen columns at Olympia: Here's one from Ephesus: Those puppies look pretty solid to me.


4

Very good, interesting question: The obelisk form is indeed ancient and ubiquitous - pre-Columbian American civilizations, ancient Egypt, Asian civilizations of long ago antiquity all were enamored with the obelisk and placed it at the center of their ritual and symbolic places of gathering. (See Paul Devereux's works) Some have postulated that this ...


3

The production designer for Die Nibelungen was the enormously creative Otto Hunte (b. 1881 d. 1960). In this photograph he is seen standing at far right, next to Fritz Lang. He was also in charge of production design for Metropolis, Der blaue Engel, Die drei von der Tankstelle and other classics of German cinema, sadly also including the Nazi big-budget ...


3

In Germany employees have the right to daylight at their workplace. This is not easy in a skyscraper, which often has a huge core of rooms without any daylight. There might be some information in DIN EN 12464-1 Licht und Beleuchtung – Beleuchtung von Arbeitsstätten – Teil 1: Arbeitsstätten in Innenräume


3

I'm a specialist of Japan not China but many influences including architecture came from China to Japan. Japan, South Korea and China all had their own long architectural histories. In addition to the information on roof charms already supplied, various symbols were used there for the protection of buildings. In particular is it typical to see ornamental ...


3

Renaissance architects absolutely did copy paste from the classical world. As for the two specific points Roark makes about the Parthenon (the triglyphs and column fluting), the short answer is that we can't be sure. I don't know of any evidence on the origins of column fluting, but there's this on the triglyphs: From A World History of Architecture by ...


2

Eastern Europe is a very large area, including Czekhia, Poland, Hungary, East Prussia on one side and Russian principalities on the other side. Architecture was very different. In the East (the Orthodox Russian principalities) most of the buildings were made of wood and I suppose nothing survived. The only exception is churches some of which were built of ...


2

It was likely a conversion from 3 19th century tenement rooms to an apartment compliant with later NYC building codes. NYC had city-specific building codes until 2008. That interior window may have been a door, or it may have been an interior window to provide some light to an apartment/room without access to natural light. (Yes, these existed.) My guess is ...


2

To expand on NewAlexandria's answer: Europe has a well developed planning and zoning regime. Obtaining planning approval for a building that is not in keeping with the existing stock is a long process that will usually meet with either failure or limitations on the design/ profile. On of the reasons the shard is the shape it is was to prevent existing ...


2

The Basilica was built next to a bell tower built in 1414. Although the English Wikipedia article states that Alberti's restoration began in 1462, most of the other sources that I found state 1472. Also, Alberti sent a description and a drawing of the proposed site to Gonzago (the patron) in 1470, after 1462. The construction began in June 1472, shortly ...


1

While 19 churches and chapels in a compact downtown core may seem like a lot in todays world, it is not so many in historical terms. A church that holds more than 1000 people is a large church, and a cathedral that holds more than 1500 people is a large cathedral (St. Paul's seats 3,500 and Westminster Abbey 2,000). In a society where everyone not ...


1

Short Answer: No. Long answer: No, there probably was nothing like African American architectural style in the early twentieth century. As you noted in your question African Americans moved from the South to the North in large numbers at the beginning of the 20th century. This was largely due to the beginning of the Jim Crow era in the South. As newcomers ...


1

If I want to occupy space in a major city I have three choices. Build a new skyscraper (possibly by proxy in the sense that I occupy space in a skyscraper built by someone else who was prepared to erect the building only because he anticipated my and others' demand for it). Occupy existing space in low-rise structures. Build new low-rise structures on ...


1

Emporis defines "skyscraper" as: A skyscraper is defined on Emporis as a multi-story building whose architectural height is at least 100 meters. This definition falls midway between many common definitions worldwide, and is intended as a metric compromise which can be applied across the board worldwide. The 100-meter cutoff for a skyscraper coincides ...


1

Pragmatically, because: Europe has a long history of great architecture, which is preserved even in the face of modern developments. the density of existing metro spaces makes it difficult to site a major project where it will get the appropriate attention. If there is space for it, it may be too far away from the metro centers skyscrapers aint all that, ...



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