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28

Scotland has gradually changed to using English without being conquered by England. Now I shall temper that a little in that there have been English speaking people living in Scotland just as long as there have in England. The Anglo-Saxons settled south east Scotland as well as north east England. However, English didn't become the majority language for ...


21

The Roman Empire, at it start under emperors Julius Caesar (44 BC) and Augustus (27 BC) had Latin as its main language, and the one spoken by its elites and leaders. At the end of it, with the capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans in 1453, the prevailing language of the elites was Greek. The main change came under emperor Heraclius (610 to 641), whose ...


10

The concept of praying to the Roman Gods as well as to whatever local deity did mean that the Republic then Empire could assimilate a lot of cultures. After all, they were always worshuiping the same gods, and now they can have access to all the good things that Rome provides -- see Life of Brian's "What did the Romans ever do for us?" speech. Even when the ...


7

Of course, it happened many times when the country was conquered, later got its freedom and returned to the previous language, that it used before that last conquest. Sometimes the language even started to change before the real freedom came, as in Czech lands in 19th century, when they started to learn they own almost dead language. The question is ...


7

How about the Holy Empire? Joseph II (Holy Emperor, King of Germany etc) changed the language of the Empire to German in 1781 (Patent of Toleration), from Latin, and sometimes from local languages. Here is the thing: there is some inherent, anachronistic assumptions in the question about the language of a country. Before XXth century without public ...


7

To begin with, the Empire was rocked with two major peasant rebellions at the same time as the Qing invasion - when the palace appeared as if they were going to be overrun by the newly declared Shun Emperor, the last emperor of the Ming dynasty, Chongzhen, went nuts and killed his entire family before hanging himself, leaving a succession crisis on top of ...


6

Perhaps part of your confusion stems from a misunderstanding of the Manchu. They were not, as you say hunter-gatherers. Rather, they were pastoralists. Hunter-gatherers, as you rightly point out, tend to have very low populations. They have to rely for sustinance only upon what nature has available where they happen to be living. Pastoralists raise their ...


6

Let me do my best to attempt an answer here... Sicily and its people have always be oddly unique. Italian, yet not Italian. They share much in common with their mainland Italian neighbours (particularly the southerners), in language, culture, history, and ethnicity -- but their particular history stands out more than most. Widely speaking, the people and ...


5

Many countries have changed their official languages. South Africa had two official languages (Afrikaans and English) before 1994 and now has 11. Bolivia used to have only one official language (Spanish), but now it has 37 (yes, 37). Rwanda went from having French and Kinyarwanda as its official languages to having English and Kinyarwanda, and now ...


5

All of the countries under Roman rule gradually migrated away from common Latin into their own distinctive languages. One example Is French, which is a modification and combination of Gaulish and vulgar Latin. England reverted to English as the official tongue of the court sometime in the 13th century after 300 years of french.


4

I am not sure this question would have made much sense to the Romans themselves. The whole concept of formal guidelines/directives is something which is associated with the modern bureaucratic state (especially in its totalitarian forms). The Romans just didn't work that way and probably would have been amazed at the suggestion that the Senate or the Emperor ...


3

Although there were many languages spoken throughout the Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire), its court and administration language switched from Latin to Greek over time.


3

In the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenian gradually became the main official language replacing Lithuanian. After the country became a part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Ruthenian was superseded by Polish.


2

They annexed territories for tax generating and mercantile trading, food generation purposes and integrated some citizens for service in the legions. It's interesting that later on Rome's policy of allowing mass immigration and citizenship for many people from the annexed territories is one of the many reasons for the Empires ultimate demise. Large scale ...


2

By the name of Jurchen they were known for they high culture long ago. Tengis-Khan win over China, but did not win over this nation. Only his heir Ögedei Khan did manage it. They already ruled China in the past - Jin Dynasty (1115–1234) in China. Sometimes, they were vassals of China. China, Korea, Manchu and Japan were all parts of one cultural space. ...


1

There was a "civil war" between two Chinese factions one under Wu Sangui, the other under Li Zicheng that handed the balance of power to the "Manchurians." This occurred after the "Nuzhen" or "Jurchen" (Manchurian) tribes had been united under one banner, with their capital and Shenyang. http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/qing.htm A similar ...


1

Ancient Aramaic was adopted as a "lingua franca" by most of the Mesopotamian states in the eleventh century. The Neo-Assyrian Empire, an Akkadian speaking culture, managed to conquer the Aramaean cities, a major center of trade, early on, which included internal exile for the Aramaean elite throughout the Assyrian empire. The meant the ruling class and ...



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