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21

Theoretically, yes. The prime minister is appointed by the governor-general, who is the representative of the Australian monarch (currently Queen Elizabeth II). The queen could instruct her representative to appoint a new prime minister at any time. (If the governor-general refused, the queen could appoint a new governor-general.) In practice, however, ...


12

In Common Sense, Thomas Paine wrote, "there is something very absurd in supposing a continent to be perpetually governed by an island." The United States, Canada, and Australia (New Zealand to a lesser extent), were all countries of continental size, far away from England. As such, they naturally wanted to have their own destinies. Scotland, Wales, and ...


10

Whether there was immediate danger or not, Australia was still at war - a demobilisation at this point would be strange to say the least. I suspect that you misinterpret Frank Welsh here and the demobilisation didn't actually start in June 1944. What happened instead according to Wikipedia: The Australian War Cabinet approved the Department of Post-War ...


8

Fire-hardened spears, hardwood clubs and maces and shark-tooth "swords" were pretty much state-of-the-art for both Aboriginal and Polynesian cultures. The Polynesians had the advantage of advanced stonemasonry and oceanic navigation, neither of which would do them much good in a war of conquest, the native Australians had a spear-thrower, the woomera, which ...


8

Australian cultures did not have access to good starter crops. This is explored at depth in an allo-history available here: http://alternatehistory.net/discussion/showthread.php?t=110941 on the topic of what crops could have been good starter crops. Indigenous Australian cultures were highly developed, including development of aquacultural structures and ...


8

Section 61 of the Constitution says "The executive power of the Commonwealth is vested in the Queen and is exercisable by the Governor-General as the Queen’s representative [...]". Prime Minister Robert Menzies had to pass a Parliamentary standing order specially for Queen Elizabeth to be able to open Parliament when she visited Australia in 1954 because ...


7

The Australian experiment was different because it started as a penal colony -- the convicts and their overseers were the initial seed population of new arrivals. There was no settler class already extant to offer the convicts to as indentured labour. The early years of the colony came close to ending in disaster -- amongst other things failed crops led to ...


7

from Australia's War 1939 - 1945: On 3 September 1939, Prime Minister Robert Gordon Menzies announced that Australia was at war with Germany: "Fellow Australians, it is my melancholy duty to inform you officially, that in consequence of a persistence by Germany in her invasion of Poland, Great Britain has declared war upon her and that, as a ...


5

The Queen (or King) of England is a constitutional monarch, a ceremonial figure whose powers are strictly circumscribed by the constitutions of England (or other Commonwealth countries). In THEORY, the "chain of command" goes from the queen, to the governor-general of the Commonwealth, to the Prime Minister of Australia. In actual fact, the queen and ...


5

It is easy to view the distance between Botany Bay and Port Jackson as small by today's standards, but it is actually a considerable 'trek'. Even with todays excellent roads, it takes two and a half hours to walk from Circular Quay (and the better soil around Port Jackson) to the northern edge of Botany Bay. Then consider you have to carry supplies over ...


5

Your question is a special case of the more general question why European settlers in many parts of the world used indigenous place names rather than making up their own. North American examples include many state names (Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky). Here is the first chapter of a longer work discussing indigenous and European place names in Australia. ...


4

Australia achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1986 ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia_Act_1986 ). This occurred for a number of reasons: The UK's entry into the EEC and the exclusion of Australian exports from the UK market; Lingering resentment over the nature of the Dismissal; and, the fact that Australia had been a functionally ...


4

People from what is modern day Indonesia were visiting northern Australia to collect and process trepang (sea-cucumber or sea slug) for centuries before European settlement. These people are generally referred to as Macassan (or Makassan). The first European to circumnavigate Australia, Matthew Flinders, encountered Macassans processing trepang. ...


4

Australia was a lot less hospitable area than Polynesians, Indonesians, and other islanders were used to. Although technically in the tropics, the fact that people lived on islands meant that the sea was a moderating influence on the climate, and "temperate" weather crops such as breadfuirt and sweet potatoes could grow on them. Also, the sea provided a ...


4

What about both? Australia was harsh, far away, hard to get away from. Perfect penal colony, if a tad big maybe. Originally it was no doubt intended as a place to dump convicts when the prisons at home were overflowing. As to your uncle, remember the penal system at the time was rather less lax of "petty crimes" than it is today. Theft was theft, no silly ...


3

Actually the perception of these places being independent is much greater then the actual degree of separation. In Canada for instance they had to ask the queen for permission to dissolve the parliament. Fun fact: Canadians pay more per capita in taxes to the queen then the British do. Approximately 1.54 per capita vs the 1.32 that the English pay. Added ...


3

And your question? your source clearly stated it was created, as a radio telegraphy service, in 1938. An undersea cable wasn't laid, as the same source states. And by the time telegraph cables were already being replaced by wireless telegraphy services (or radio telegraphy as the Americans called it). Wikipedia states that the first cable from the US across ...


3

To be honest, I don't know the chances, but here are the following facts, hopefully they give good picture on topic: The continent was spotted by various people before James Cook - collected evidences are from the related wikipedia page's sources: K.G. McIntyre (1977) The Secret Discovery of Australia; Portuguese discoveries 200 years before Captain Cook. ...


3

Scotland, Ireland and Wales along with England were all integral parts of the UK with full representation in the UK government. The four nations each benefited from the Union, for the most part anyway. And so with the exception of Ireland, there has never been a majority in any of the four in favour of independence. (that may change soon though.) Canada, ...


3

During the 1940s and 1950s the "anti-labour" (and incidentally, anti-Labor) parties finally got organised, and started whipping their backbenchers. From the 1940s Australia has had a well developed party system with fairly rigorously controlled party internals. Part of the reason for the development of rigorously controlled parties can be seen in the ...


3

Aside from attacks during the two already mentioned time periods - European colonisation and the Japanese attacks during WW2 - there was another attack on Australian soil, though not on the continent itself: In the early morning of 2004-09-09, a car bomb was detonated at the Australian embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia. Of course, an embassy's area isn't, ...


3

A Japanese submarine bombarded the suburbs of Sydney, including Rose Bay, with a small cannon. As part of the initial attacks on Northern Australia, there were air raids at several points including a devastating attack on a seaplane base at Broome in North-Western Australia. Eventually the Japanese had to re-deploy the carrier forces that led these attacks ...


2

The Australian Settlement was cemented in early Federal parliaments (Stokes in AJPS; Wikipedia). These measures in the early parliament cemented a system of tarifs and wages that satisfied the central impulse behind the protectionist party. Correspondingly, the two anti-Labor parties reformed themselves around anti-labor politics, rather than differentials ...


2

Australia was settled 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. They arrived by sea during period of glaciation when portions of Australia were still joined to the main continent. According to the below linked wiki page this makes them some of the worlds first mariners. All in all, based on the fact that it was 40,000 to 60,000 years ago it would seem the technologies ...


2

For a moment let's ignore the meaning of "widely propagated". Apple trees were the first trees to be cultivated. Their genetic diversity is incredible, with for example 2000 varieties allegedly found in Italy only. Other sources report that there are 7000 known apple varieties in the world. I do not report the sources as I have serious doubts about methods ...


2

The austronesian were great mariners and this brought them to far corner of the globe as far as Easter island and Madagascar. But why not Australia which lies south of Indonesia? I think the most plausible answer is because its already inhabited and when austronesian made landings, to Australia, it was by chance and composed of a handful of individuals. They ...


1

The section "Former Yugoslavia" of the Wikipedia article on War rape says that Serbs raped Muslims and Croatians with the intention to produce new Serbs During the Bosnian War the existence of deliberately created "rape camps" was reported. The reported aim of these camps was to impregnate the Muslim and Croatian women held captive. It has been ...


1

Margaret Atwood is half right and half wrong. Yes, the British had a strategy to colonise Australia via the penal system. No, their motivation for sending criminals to the Australian penal colony was not to force a large number of people to move to a yet-to-be established colony. Yes, the male-to-female balance became problematic. No, they did not simply ...


1

There are a few reasons that the Australasian colonies decided to federate – and the emphasis will differ depending on which (historical) person you ask. If I may use a modern comparison, there a few reasons that Australia did not become a republic when the referendum was put to the people in 1999: there were various groups and people advocating the “Yes” or ...


1

For Canada, many reasons brought it to independence. First of all, colonies were taken and land was captured so metropolis could exploit natural resources there. Canada was thought to have gold (and a way to go straight to China, the Northwest passage). Finally, none of these were proven, and the most wanted resources were 1-fish 2-beaver fur 3- wood ...



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