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11

Brigitte Hamann's Hitler's Vienna: A Portrait of the Tyrant as a Young Man lists the commitee members. (I've also quoted from her book here). The decision was made by the faculty: professors Rudolf Bacher, Franz Rumpler, Heinrich Lefler, and Kasimiar Pochwalski, but above all, the directors of the two paining schools, Christian Griepenkern and Alois ...


8

The obvious interpretation is your point that the position of Vienna was similar to that of Berlin: both were in the eastern part of the country, surrounded by the Soviet occupation zone, even if the position within the city itself was different. So if you drew a line across Europe showing the areas controlled by the Soviet Red Army or by local ...


8

As a bride, Marie Antoniette might have been disliked by some due to the longstanding conflict between the two dynasties. But in terms of legitimacy, I'm not sure what could be illegitimate about being an Archduchess of Austria. Indeed, I'm not sure how one could ask for a more legitimate bride than a princess of Europe's most prestigious royal house. In ...


8

Retrospectively, the only answer to your question is: "because of poor grasp of the local political and cultural context". In the 1920s, dominant countries were organized on the notion of nation state. This was a relatively recent development; for instance, Germany had formally existed only for 50 years or so at that time. Other countries had turned into ...


6

Easy: through his mother, who was Ferdinand and Isabella's daughter.


5

One answer is the battle of Koeniggratz, against Bismarck's Prussia, which Austria-Hungary lost. Bismarck looked for allies in his war against Austria-Hungary, and found a ready "taker" in Italy, who wanted Venezia, and had previously been allied with France (and gotten Lombardy out of the bargain). The Italian participation occupied enough of the Austrian ...


5

The striking thing was that France and Austria had been political rivals going back to the time of Francis I (France) and Charles V (Austria). Until the mid 18th century. After winning the 100 Years' War, France became the strongest power in western Europe. Spain and Austria (counting the Holy Roman Empire) were two and three, and when Princess Juana of ...


4

"Spain was a powerful kingdom ruled by Ferdinand and Isabella (or their descendants) at that time." Charles V was one of those descendants. Specifically, his mother, Juana of Castile was the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, while he inherited Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Netherlands from his father and the father's parents. And Charles V ...


4

I strongly doubt labeling Salzburg as "Stadt der Lebensforschung" was some sort of official honorary title. As far as i see, the only source for this title is an article in the "Salzburger Landeszeitung" (in those times, an austrian national socialist's newspaper; not to be confused with a modern-day government gazette holding the same name) by Eduard Paul ...


4

For a partial answer, you can work backwards from the birth dates of prominent students. It was customary to start this kind of education after finishing high school at the age of 18: A Benjamin Strasser (1888–1955) did so in 1905. As for the admission process, the place and time suggests to me that once the applicant was able to muster the basic ...


4

I cannot offer definite proof right now, but I'm almost certain (von) Mises was an Austrian citizen at least sometimes before his forced emigration to Switzerland. Consider e.g. this: He was working for the national chamber of commerce and consulting for the Austrian government. Such roles are usually filled by citizens even today. Lots of people kept ...


4

The design in question is from Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban and was typical of an age where gunpowder were used.


4

The apparent reason for the creation of these Slavic "multinational" states was to create states that were strong enough to act as "buffer states" against Austria, Hungary, and Bulgaria (Germany's allies in World War I). Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania would, in fact go on to form the "Little Entente", with which France later formed an alliance. So ...


3

This depends on what you mean by protest. Mexico was apparently the only country that protested officially to the League of Nations. The Soviet Union condemned the annexation of Austria, of course, as did the Spanish Republic, and (surprisingly) the Vatican.


3

I wonder if it sheds any light on this decision if we compare the examples cited above with the one instance where the opposite happened- Galicia? Poles and Ukrainians were intermixed to a degree that would induce a headache in anyone trying to draw a "fair" borderEthnic Map of Poland (for the purposes of this discussion please consider "galicia" to be ...


3

Effective political lobbying and influence by political activists by the Czechs and the Yugoslav committee. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yugoslav_Committee Both Yugoslav Committee and the Czech already had the ear of important people moving into the Paris conference.


3

I found a very interesting source — a Ph.D. thesis by Mag. Lisa Ferris entitled “Irish Views on Old Austria and Austrian Views on the Irish Question, 1848 – 1918” devoted to the study of Irish in Austria. (It’s 775 pages long!) Here is a bit from page 19 (page 104 of the PDF document): The Taaffes, although almost completely integrated in Austria, never ...


3

MOST countries' kings practiced "Diplomacy by marriage." Austria stood out by making it work. That's because her kings' marriages seemed to be highly topical, rather than random. For instance, there didn't seem to be much of a point for Maximilian of Austria to marry Marie of Burgundy. Until you realize that Austria is on the southeast edge, and ...


2

Adam Smith in An inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations noted: [W]hen land was considered as the means, not of subsistence merely, but of power and protection, it was thought better that it should descend undivided to one. In those disorderly times, every great landlord was a sort of petty prince. His tenants were his subjects. He ...


1

According to your link, Nicholas Taafe was not promoted to Major General until 1739, a year after the battle of Belgrade. Basically, he was not a senior enough officer in 1738 to have won the battle by himself. What MAY have happened was that he displayed exceptional bravery/skill that won him the 1739 promotion despite the Austrians' having lost the ...



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