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13

The industrial revolution obviously had nothing to do with it. Maria Theresa reigned from 1740 to 1780; the Industrial Revolution only began in Britain from around the 1760s and didn't come to Central Europe until much later. Her laws on forestry were enacted over a period of decades. The measures you cited were clearly motivated by a concern for ...


12

Brigitte Hamann's Hitler's Vienna: A Portrait of the Tyrant as a Young Man lists the commitee members. (I've also quoted from her book here). The decision was made by the faculty: professors Rudolf Bacher, Franz Rumpler, Heinrich Lefler, and Kasimiar Pochwalski, but above all, the directors of the two paining schools, Christian Griepenkern and Alois ...


12

Hitler's ultimate motive was 'Upliftment of the Aryan Race'. For this an auxillary goal was making the 'pure' German Nationality walk tall, and be strong. Hitler was not a exactly a German nationalist, he was a Pan German, strifing for uniting the German race. This essentially opposed the rise of sub - nationalism among various states of German ...


11

At the time nation-states (and in particular France) consolidated themselves, the governance of the German-speaking parts of Europe was based on an older model, small principalities loosely associated in large empires. Consequently, many German thinkers developed a view of the nation as a bound based on ethnicity and, in particular, language and transcending ...


10

The obvious interpretation is your point that the position of Vienna was similar to that of Berlin: both were in the eastern part of the country, surrounded by the Soviet occupation zone, even if the position within the city itself was different. So if you drew a line across Europe showing the areas controlled by the Soviet Red Army or by local ...


9

Retrospectively, the only answer to your question is: "because of poor grasp of the local political and cultural context". In the 1920s, dominant countries were organized on the notion of nation state. This was a relatively recent development; for instance, Germany had formally existed only for 50 years or so at that time. Other countries had turned into ...


9

I would not put Hitler, Trotsky and Stalin under the title "incubator of intellectual activities". That said, it is indeed true that intellectual activities flourished in the beginning of 20s century in the Austro-Hungarian empire. (Budapest, Prague and Lemberg (now Lviv) also qualify for the surge of intellectual activities at the same time). Your ...


9

Prince Metternich is reputed to have said, "The Balkans begin at the Rennweg". The Rennweg is a street that led southwest out of the Austrian capital, Vienna. It runs through modern Vienna's third district, Landstraße. Another variant of the supposed quote is, "Asia begins at the Landstrasse".


8

@Relaxed is right to point out that Germany was unified under Prussian, not Austrian hegemony. Prussia’s 1866 military victory over Austria at Koeniggraetz definitively shut out the Austrians. Subsequently, the 1870 war between Prussia and France, with many of the remaining German states outside Austria joining in, led to William I of Prussian being ...


8

As a bride, Marie Antoniette might have been disliked by some due to the longstanding conflict between the two dynasties. But in terms of legitimacy, I'm not sure what could be illegitimate about being an Archduchess of Austria. Indeed, I'm not sure how one could ask for a more legitimate bride than a princess of Europe's most prestigious royal house. In ...


7

The road in question, the Rennweg, begins at the Landstrasse in the south center of modern Vienna, at the southern edge of what was then Vienna. When Metternich referred to the "Balkans," he was referring to the non-German speaking part of Austria, variously referred to as the "east" of even as "Asia." This was because it represented the "high water mark" ...


6

I assume you are not interested in fairly common cases of a new country becoming independent and the old country recognising that. An example might be section 2 of the Canada Act 1982 passed by the UK parliament at the request of the Canadian government, which said No Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed after the Constitution Act, 1982 ...


6

Easy: through his mother, who was Ferdinand and Isabella's daughter.


6

Semaphore's hypothesis was right. I found interesting resource which tells us that islands actually had been considered terra nullius till 1926. Until the year 1926 the islands had been considered "Terra Nullius", or other words, ''No Man's Land". However, following practices of Canada, the Soviet Union claimed that all land in the sector between ...


5

Anne was by birth an Archduchess of Austria. Around her time, the title of Archduke/Archduchess became assumed by all ruling Habsburg dynasts and their children. There's several other examples such as Joanna of Austria, or Anne's sister Maria Anna of Austria. She was also a princess of the House of Austria. Anne descends from that dynasty on both parents' ...


5

The apparent reason for the creation of these Slavic "multinational" states was to create states that were strong enough to act as "buffer states" against Austria, Hungary, and Bulgaria (Germany's allies in World War I). Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania would, in fact go on to form the "Little Entente", with which France later formed an alliance. So ...


5

One answer is the battle of Koeniggratz, against Bismarck's Prussia, which Austria-Hungary lost. Bismarck looked for allies in his war against Austria-Hungary, and found a ready "taker" in Italy, who wanted Venezia, and had previously been allied with France (and gotten Lombardy out of the bargain). The Italian participation occupied enough of the Austrian ...


5

I cannot offer definite proof right now, but I'm almost certain (von) Mises was an Austrian citizen at least sometimes before his forced emigration to Switzerland. Consider e.g. this: He was working for the national chamber of commerce and consulting for the Austrian government. Such roles are usually filled by citizens even today. Lots of people kept ...


5

I strongly doubt labeling Salzburg as "Stadt der Lebensforschung" was some sort of official honorary title. As far as i see, the only source for this title is an article in the "Salzburger Landeszeitung" (in those times, an austrian national socialist's newspaper; not to be confused with a modern-day government gazette holding the same name) by Eduard Paul ...


5

The striking thing was that France and Austria had been political rivals going back to the time of Francis I (France) and Charles V (Austria). Until the mid 18th century. After winning the 100 Years' War, France became the strongest power in western Europe. Spain and Austria (counting the Holy Roman Empire) were two and three, and when Princess Juana of ...


5

Because the House of Austria became Counts of Tyrol, and later acquired Vorarlberg. When feudalism gave way to modern states, these territories fused into Austria as we know it today. The thing is, borders are the way they are because of history. You cannot infer geopolitical divisions from only geography, and then act astonished that reality isn't ...


4

"Spain was a powerful kingdom ruled by Ferdinand and Isabella (or their descendants) at that time." Charles V was one of those descendants. Specifically, his mother, Juana of Castile was the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, while he inherited Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Netherlands from his father and the father's parents. And Charles V ...


4

For a partial answer, you can work backwards from the birth dates of prominent students. It was customary to start this kind of education after finishing high school at the age of 18: A Benjamin Strasser (1888–1955) did so in 1905. As for the admission process, the place and time suggests to me that once the applicant was able to muster the basic ...


4

The design in question is from Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban and was typical of an age where gunpowder were used.


4

As an addendum to @Relaxed's answer, it's worthwhile to point out that Austria actually tried (twice) to annex Bavaria in the late 18th century. These attempts were frustrated by other European powers, chiefly Prussia who actually went to war with Austria over it, the so-called Potato War. Curiously, the only gain that Austria made at the settlement of this ...


3

This depends on what you mean by protest. Mexico was apparently the only country that protested officially to the League of Nations. The Soviet Union condemned the annexation of Austria, of course, as did the Spanish Republic, and (surprisingly) the Vatican.


3

I wonder if it sheds any light on this decision if we compare the examples cited above with the one instance where the opposite happened- Galicia? Poles and Ukrainians were intermixed to a degree that would induce a headache in anyone trying to draw a "fair" borderEthnic Map of Poland (for the purposes of this discussion please consider "galicia" to be ...


3

Effective political lobbying and influence by political activists by the Czechs and the Yugoslav committee. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yugoslav_Committee Both Yugoslav Committee and the Czech already had the ear of important people moving into the Paris conference.


3

I found a very interesting source — a Ph.D. thesis by Mag. Lisa Ferris entitled “Irish Views on Old Austria and Austrian Views on the Irish Question, 1848 – 1918” devoted to the study of Irish in Austria. (It’s 775 pages long!) Here is a bit from page 19 (page 104 of the PDF document): The Taaffes, although almost completely integrated in Austria, never ...


3

MOST countries' kings practiced "Diplomacy by marriage." Austria stood out by making it work. That's because her kings' marriages seemed to be highly topical, rather than random. For instance, there didn't seem to be much of a point for Maximilian of Austria to marry Marie of Burgundy. Until you realize that Austria is on the southeast edge, and ...



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