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9

Aztec weaponry comprised wooden clubs and spears tipped with flint, obsidian and occasionally copper. These weapons could inflict blunt trauma damage to Cortez's troops, and could penetrate the gaps in the Spanish armour with a lucky blow, but had little chance of actually inflicting significant damage to the armour itself. Combined with the natural ...


7

Your question is framed oddly. Human Sacrifice, and lots of it, were common in pre-columbian Mesoamerican cultures: not just the Aztecs, but the Mayans and a bunch of others, too. No apocalyptic justifications apply, they just killed a bunch of people for their religious rites. It got so bad, the client states of the Three Part Alliance, who had to supply ...


4

The architecture you want to investigate is the step-pyramid. In short, it's the easiest way to build very tall structures with a lot of manpower and natural resources, but not a lot of architectural sophistication. As a civilization progresses, its architectural sophistication increases, leading to very different structures - the smooth sided Egyptian ...


4

There are several important technologies developed independently by different civilizations. Those I can think of off the top of my head is writing, agriculture including large-scale irrigation, metal working, pottery and the aforementioned pyramids. There are probably more. As to your second question: No, even if it would be proven that Phoenicians ...


4

Though interpretation is always imperfect, many would use folios from the Florentine Codex as direct evidence for mushroom use among Aztecs, and probably Mesoamericans broadly. Here is the prime piece of evidence: A mushroom is depicted, and given the name "Teonanacatl" An Aztec man sits on a mat that is known to be a ceremonial object. The man is ...


4

First of all, there is an attempt by some current historians to use cultural/moral relativism when it comes to Europeans and Mesoamerican cultures in this time period. They'll attempt to equate things like the Spanish Inquisition (if they're on the anti-religious political left) or modern day abortion (if they're on the religious political right) with the ...


2

I find the claim dubious, or at least incomplete. Google reveals multiple citations to Aztec use of cocoa beans (I think the Bank of Belgium is among the best) as commodity currency, and none to feathers in the same role. I would have expected at least one mention of the alternative commodity currencies.


2

I wrote a paper related this topic, for peer review. Basically, the general story (maybe "propaganda") of state ritual sacrifice was that those sacrificed were becoming god-like, and so were elevated to the holiest status achievable - perhaps (in a distant way) like suicide bombers today. The Aztecs saw that representing yourself as one of these Divine ...


1

The closest literary source I have encountered that involves a perspective of these Native Americans is the journals of Bernal Diaz. In the book Victors and Vanquished you can find several of his eye witness accounts that seem to be somewhat unbiased. From what I have read, these three tribes were indeed "bloodthirsty" but not in the sense of a serial ...


1

Most of what we know about human sacrifices among the Aztecs is known from post-conquest codexes such as Ramirez Codex, Codex Tudela, or Codex Magliabechiano, written by baptized Christian Aztecs. There is no comprehensive and even quantitative data from any non-Christian source. It is known that Franciscan bishop Juan de Zumárraga burned all pre-Christian ...



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