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55

sides got locked into relatively short lines of heavily defended trench warfare with little prospect of gains for either side. The lines on the Western Front were not by any stretch of the imagination "short". The Western Front ran all the way from Switzerland to the Atlantic Ocean. Side attacks? Well the Race to the Sea (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...


44

The battle caused mass casualties. The commemoration is part of the mourning. Example: Stalingrad from the German viewpoint. The battle showed outstanding heroism from the defeated side. The commemoration celebrates the heroes. Example: Camerone from the Foreign Legion viewpoint. The battle was perceived as perfidy from the winning side. The defeated side is ...


36

Battle of the Alamo is certainly remembered in Texas, and they certainly lost that battle. Pearl Harbor was a major loss to the United States, and is still commemorated annually. In these two cases the prior losses became rallying cries in future battles, which were victories. The Romans lost the Battle of the Caudine Forks, 321 BC, for which the ...


28

There were no "sides" where one might perform a side-attack. After the initial German push was defeated at the First Battle of the Marne, the British and French attacked the Germans at the First Battle of the Aisne. There, both the Germans and the Entente found how effective entrenching was against attacking troops. Having failed the frontal attacks and ...


20

We have essentially three references on this topic. Of these, only Caesar's could have had political motivations, as he was engaged in a campaign against the Britons. His account, however, is only marginal compared to the others, in that he does not clearly state that the Celts went to battle naked. On the other hand, both Polybius and Diodourus Siculus look ...


20

The question as it stands would require a book to answer it. Luckily for you, the book has been written: "Naval Warfare Under Oars, 4th to 16th Century" by Rodgers (1940). To quote from Chapter 8 on the Italian Naval Wars in the 13th century: Tactical Customs Ordinarily, squadrons moved in column with the admiral leading; in battle the fleet ...


18

The existing answers provide detail on why side attacks and real breakthroughs were impossible in practice. I want to add a theoretic level why strategists might also wouldn't want them. To answer your question with emphasize on the "accept" part, I would like to refer you to a military theorist who foresaw some developments and is thus still taught at many ...


17

In order to be strategically pointless, it must be the case that a victory the other way would have had a negligibly different effect on subsequent historical events. Consider the possibility that as the two British columns approach the French/Spanish line of battle a fluke shot explodes the magazine on Royal Sovereign at the head of the Lee Column (think H....


12

In the Kronstadt Rebellion soviet forces advanced over seasonal sea ice to attack a rebelling naval fortification. Once again, at the Battle of Ogdensburg, during the War of 1812, British forces attacked American forces over the frozen St Lawrence river. In this case coming under artillery fire whilst on the river, which must have been interesting.


12

The last king to lead in battle is George II in the Battle of Dettingen. The last one to die in battle was Richard III at Bosworth.


12

Lots. Probably the most well-known example is that the Jews used to take their God (inside the Arc of the Covenant) into battle with them. (Of course in their accounts, the magic often worked). A much more modern version came out of the Ghost Dance of the late 19th Century. Through a combination of native and Mormon theological elements, a group of Lakota ...


11

In most cases, they would forage (or pillage) from neighboring areas. As in invading army, they had no qualms about taking whatever they wanted or needed. In situations where they were sending troops considerable distances or for prolonged periods of time, they had to develop other methods. In some situations they would create relay stations, which would ...


11

WWI was a pivotal time in military tactics due to the number of technological advances in warfare that had been relatively unused until that point in time. Machine guns had developed to a point that isn't much different from modern designs; field artillery had gotten a lot bigger, was capable of indirect fire, and had many different munition options; ...


11

Per your comment "I am interested in ... the conditions under which the loser comes to actively keep memories of the battle alive." Conditions for retaining a memorial of the defeat include the symbolism associated with the battle the larger cultural reasons/struggles behind the battle celebration of martyrs the sense of group identity it ...


10

I think this may be a(nother) case of alleged American exceptionalism :) Is there any known intrinsic reason as to why American Civil War generals might have led their troops into multi-day battles as a result of new invention in warfare, or is it perhaps simply the case that this war consisted of a long string of battles, hence also of relatively many multi-...


10

I am Adrienne Mayor and I never wrote that Porus used any kind of poison weapons, not swords or arrows and certainly not poisoned elephant tusks, as claimed on About.com and the Univ. of Washington sites See my "Greek Fire, Poison Arrows & Scorpion Bombs: Biological and Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World" (Overlook/Duckworth, 2003, 2009) pp 88-91 and ...


10

Generals tend to "fight the last war." That said, there are periods of defensive predominance that shape later periods of offensive predominance, and are shaped by earlier periods of offensive predominance. For instance,offensive cavalry ruled supreme between the invention of the stirrup, and the invention of defensive missile weapons such as the long bow ...


9

Oh boy, this is the moment to speak of the most awesome battle ever. You see, in winter 1794, a French Hussard regiment was sent to prevent a Dutch fleet, stuck in Den Helder to rejoin british forces. The Dutch Republic was in a state close to civil war and the fealty of those ship was in question. And so, a cavalry regiment had the exceptionnal ...


9

You might find this enlightening: Naval tactics in the Age of Sail Also: Line of Battle To address your main points: Distance: The fleets could get pretty close, Battle of the Chesapeake page has a quite good map. Also it was possible for ships to pair off a fight in close quarters like at Quiberon Bay). I can't say, but the artists representations look ...


9

Japan did have naval forces at the time, and they probably fought the Mongolians a few times. The samurai Takezaki Suenaga, a gokenin from Higo in central Kyūshū, was a veteran of both wars. To showcase his valour in battle (to request rewards from the government), Takezaki commissioned the Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba, an illustrated account of the Mongol invasions....


9

I believe it would be Operation Weserübung, the German invasion of Denmark and Norway during the Second World War. German Fallschirmjägers were deployed in several small scale actions in both Denmark and Norway. The first airborne assault occurred at approximately 5 a.m. on 9 April 1940, when a German battalion were dropped on the Danish island of Masnedø, ...


9

My impression is that the siege of Sevastopol (1854) is more remembered by the side that lost (Russians). Some of the great Russian literature is written about it, and it is very much reflected in Russian art. Museum commemorating this siege is the main sightseeing in Sevastopol. It is true this siege is remembered by the British and French as well (one of ...


8

While not directly a scene for major combat, the Lake Ladoga ice road was vitally important to Leningrad during WW2.


7

Yes. However, I don't think you're are giving Napoleon enough credit here as the driver of events. It appears that the entire point of Ligny was to prevent exactly that. Here's what wikipedia (currently) has to say: The battle of Ligny is a prime example of a tactical win and a strategic loss. However, had the left wing of Napoleon´s army succeeded ...


7

The battle of Thermopylae (300 Spartans) is a prime example:-) I think no comments are required because everyone knows this example very well. Persian literature of that time did not survive to our days, but one can be reasonably sure that Persians did not consider this battle as something very important. Moreover, one can conjecture that the battle is so ...


6

At Agincourt (1415) the English reportedly had 1,500 men-at-arms (aka: Knights) and 7,000 longbowmen. That would be a ratio of nearly 5 longbowmen per knight. The French side has a lot of conflicting estimates of size, but by all accounts was very heavily weighted toward men-at-arms. Estimates generally run north of 10,000, with only about 5,000 archers and ...


6

A prime example would be the Siege of Malta by the Ottomans in 1565. The Ottomans outnumbered the defenders 5 to 1, according to the numbers given by Francisco Balbi di Correggio, but did not succeed in conquering the island.


6

The Peschanka/Stalingrad "bone fields" are discussed in this thread on Dan Carlin's forum. Dan cites: Donovan Webster, Aftermath: The Remnants of War: From Landmines to Chemical Warfare — The Devastating Effects of Modern Combat The other main source, whom I think Dan mentions in that show, is Walter Seledec, an Austrian TV editor/official (and ...


6

One of the better known examples is the late 15th century equestrian armour A21 in the Wallace Collection in London. There is a paper on this armour (ref.1). The paper includes measurements of the plates of the armour for both man and horse: Edge and Williams A STUDY OF THE GERMAN ‘GOTHIC’ 15TH-CENTURY EQUESTRIAN ARMOUR (A21) IN THE WALLACE COLLECTION,...


6

The First World War probably takes all five spots comfortably. Battle of the Somme: ~420k Battle of Passchendaele (Third Ypres): ~275k Operation Michael: ~177k Second Battle of Arras: ~140k Battle of Gallipoli: ~120k (excluding illness and the Commonwealth)



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