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The oldest Biblical manuscript is Papyrus P52 containing a fragment of the Gospel According to John. It dates to around 100-150 A.D., and is usually cited as from 125 AD. It has been alleged that a fragment of the Gospels According to Mark dates to the first century, but as far as I know this has not been authenticated officially. (Since the question ...


Since you have changed your question I will reply directly to the question you have posed. The oldest fragments of manuscripts of parts of the New Testament are not older than the first quarter of the second century.


The earliest confirmed date of written evidence for Christianity is probably the book of 1 Thessalonians, which is dated around 50 AD. Wikipedia has a list of the various books of the new testament (the portion of the Christian Bible which is specific to Christianity), and their dates of authorship. The oldest known, existing manuscript from the New ...


I think this is a perfectly legitimate question. The first real (that is: datable and tangible) evidence for Christianity is the report of the Roman pagan historian Tacitus about Christians in Rome at the time of Nero. Tacitus wrote his history around the year 116.


Prisons, as we understand them today serve the purpose of depriving an individual of their liberty; that idea of liberty did not exist at the time that you refer to. The liberty of an individual to live their life as they see fit within the restraints of the law is a modern concept, therefor the idea of punishing a person by depriving them of something of ...


A prison is expensive: you have to build the installation with all the necessary security precautions (fixed costs), and then feed and cloth the inmates and guards (variable costs). This is completely unaffordable for a subsistence society (IOW, before feudal castles provides dungeons). The Biblical law provides for 3 kinds of penalties: death, flogging (at ...


The ancient Romans had prisons, such as Mamertime Prison, but imprisonment was just a temporary measure before trial or execution, not a punishment in itself. The English Houses of Correction introduced a more modern system of mass incarceration, with hard labor.


A nice timeline appears in Max I. Dimont's survey, Jews, God and History (Simon & Shuster 1962). Rather than using the order that you set out in your questions, I will answer chronologically according to Dimont's timeline. Note that historians disagree as to who and how the ideas of Judaism developed, and there might be some quibbling about the ...

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