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38

Historians have ignored the invasion of Iceland as it played an insignificant role in the war and was a temporary tactical decision: Not a land-grab. Iceland was content to allow British occupation with the stated condition that Britain would withdraw their troops at the end of the war and not interfere with Icelandic government. Britain ended up ...


32

Many writings from this time period mention Roman Britain. Notable examples include the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, both of which mention Rome. These date to around the 9-12th centuries and the 8th century, respectively. There are also pseudohistorical works that speak of Rome, such as the fantastical 9th-century ...


20

Seems like the questioner was asking for a bit more than just an idea of conversion rates, so here is some background on how the pre-decimal currency worked. 4 farthings = one penny 2 halfpennies = one penny tuppence = colloquial two pence thruppence = colloquial three pence 240 pence in one pound 6 pence = sixpence (aka a Tanner), or half a shilling. ...


20

Educated people in the European Middle Ages knew Latin and read the Roman classics. They were thus very well informed about the Roman Empire. Even uneducated people were keenly aware of the contents of the Bible (through sermons, passion plays, for example). The Roman Empire figures very prominently in the New Testament narrative (Caesar Augustus, Pontius ...


16

The short answer: they were very aware of the Roman empire and its past glory. Long answer: This questions gets to the problem of "What was England Like in the 9th Century?" If you can answer this question well, you can get an idea of whether the average person would known of Rome, or how much they would have known. I would suggest as a starter looking at ...


14

According to Wikipedia, it was 30 years at birth. However, the reason for such mortality age is due to infant mortality. If you managed to survive until the age of 21, you could expect to live until 45 or (depending on source) mid 60's. Health A millennium of health improvement The average life expectancy for a male child born in the UK between ...


14

I have looked through the German Propaganda Archive and haven't found any references to the British occupation of Iceland in 1940. So I would hesitantly guess that if the occupation was used by German propagandists, it was not used widely.


14

What you are referring to is commonly known as the "French Column". I suppose it shouldn't be surprising that English movies and the English version of Wikipedia are pretty dismissive of it. After all, that was the opinion of everyone's favorite English General, Wellington. And he was certainly able to back it up. The first thing you have to realize is that ...


12

Hong Kong became British colony as a result of First Opium War, which was lost by Qing Dynasty of China to United Kingdom. It was part of agreements of Treaty of Nanking that was signed in 1842, as well as huge war reparations. What's important, original agreement established that Hong Kong becomes British for eternity, not for the exact amount of years. ...


12

The early medieval Welsh had several folktales and legends which survive in versions written down in the 12th century, but which refer to the Romans. The best known example is probably the Dream Of Emperor Macsen, whose title character is derived from Magnus Maximum, commander of the Roman army in Britain in the late 4th century.


11

Napoleon loved forward momentum - and he got it with the heavy column. The formation forced his infantry forward, the front ranks constantly pushed to the fore by the ranks behind them, and made opponents break formation to get the hell out of the way. This worked, because Napoleon was an artilleryman - he would disrupt opposing line formations with ...


10

Like most battles, the results of those at Falkirk and Bannockburn depended on the fortunes and momentum of war. At Falkirk, for instance, the initial English cavalry charge didn't do much against the schiltrons (circles) of spearmen, but it slaughtered Scots archers placed wrongly between (instead of inside) the schiltrons. Thus, the Welch archers, which ...


10

First of all, Hong Kong is now China (from 1997), based off your question, I wasn't sure if you knew. India and Hong Kong were very different stories. India was most definitely hurt by Great Britain. For example, Great Britain had a total monopoly on Indian salt. That meant that the Indians produced salt, and then, the British took it and sold it back to ...


10

It appears so. See The Unreformed House of Commons: Parliamentary Representation before 1832 (1903), by Edward Porritt, for a discussion on this. On page 357-358: "It was in this period when, as the North correspondence shows, a nomination to a seat fetched from two thousand five hundred to three thousand pounds, that seats were first advertised for ...


9

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bravo_Two_Zero A British SAS mission during the First Gulf War and involved: Insertion by Helicopter Malfunctioning Radios Discovery by a Shepherd Encounter with a bulldozer All but one member killed or captured by enemy The wiki page lists quite a few details regarding the mission and also gives details on multiple books ...


9

Yip man was real (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). He was a famous student of Wing Chun. My guess is that you're referring to the 2008 movie, Ip Man. However, it was not historically accurate. Quoting its Wikipedia page: Film4's review detailed the departures from history: "The real Ip Man was never, despite the film's assertions to the contrary, forced from ...


9

Britain didn't use their navy because ships don't work on land. You need boots on the ground to exert control. They could have bombed the few coastal cities and fortifications, but it wouldn't have achieved much. It would still be necessary to break the enemy line and posses their territory which the ships couldn't do. All that could be achieved is the ...


8

Being that Britain had been exposed to Roman influence for close to a century - Caesar having made first contact with his invasion around 55bc. There was constant diplomatic and trade relations between the British and Romans following that. As Caractacus was a member of the ruling class, it's entirely possible that he spoke Latin to some extent. As ...


8

Also, Denmark had sovereignity over Iceland, and Denmark's status was questioned. They didn't resist the German invasion, so for some time the Brits didn't know whether to treat Denmark as an invaded Ally or as an enemy. If Denmark was an enemy, the occupation of Iceland was quite legal.


8

They are two lions argent supporting the Royal Arms which also sports a lion. That said, Edward IV's list of approved badges includes a Wolf argent (of Mortimer). His grandmother was Anne de Mortimer.


8

The Oxford English Dictionary says: It was not until the 17th cent. that Your Majesty entirely superseded the other customary forms of address to the sovereign in English. Henry VIII and Queen Elizabeth I were often addressed as ‘Your Grace’ and ‘Your Highness’, and the latter alternates with ‘Your Majesty’ in the dedication of the Bible of 1611 to James ...


8

The answer is, quite simply, yes. The daily ration of alcohol traditionally existed to help soldiers cope with the stress of combat and daily life within the military. In WW2, the British Army did continue with a Rum ration to troops, but only in some situations and only with the consent of a medical officer. This ration was generally given before attacks ...


7

Inflation has been defined as "too much money chasing too few goods," or in this case, "too few people." The supply of money, M, was fixed by the number of coins in circulation, which in turn was limited by the amount of available precious metals. When one third of the population, P, died off suddenly, the former relation of M to P became M/(2/3 P), ...


7

Why do the British use rifled barrels? From wikipedia: "Uniquely among NATO main battle tank armament, the L30A1 is rifled, because the British Army continues to place a premium on the use of high explosive squash head (HESH) rounds in addition to APFSDS armour-piercing rounds. HESH rounds have a longer range (up to 8 kilometres / 5 miles) than APFSDS, and ...


7

The kind of strike you are talking about is called work-to-rule, and is not limited to any single action in one country. Here's an article about a British teacher's union using the tactic in 2012. I first heard about it being used by aussies, but its Wikipedia entry implies (without any backup that I can see) that it is known to be a favored tactic in ...


7

There are probably several reasons, and it's likely impossible to answer without writing a book, and most of the reasons are not political but has rather to do with economics. One of the major reasons is based in fundamental economics. The Bismarckian welfare state is based on social insurance, ie, the government pays for an insurance that the welfare ...


6

For British ships of war, the usual practise was to have a single gun crew allocated to the guns on both sides of the ship. If the ship was fighting on a single side then the whole gun crew worked the gun on that side. For the great guns this was between 10-14 men depending on the size of the cannon. If fighting both sides, the gun crew split so that a ...


6

The first thing to remember is that Napoleon prized speed over everything else. Most of his campaigns he faced much larger armies led by different nations and leaders. When Napoleon arrived the opposing armies would be near one another but not yet (His apposing armies were separated due to forage and supply needs, or were traveling to meet one another at a ...


6

Operation Shingle during WW2 is an example of this idea of large scale amphibious flanking. The idea was to land in Italy to outflank the German Winter Line. This operation was marginally successful but came with massive risks and almost failed abysmally. Add to this that British forces would not have the numerical advantage that the Allies would have over ...



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