Tag Info

Hot answers tagged

62

Despite common misconception, both Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula were ceded to the United Kingdom in perpetuity, via the Treaty of Nanking and the Convention of Peking, respectively. London was under no legal obligation to return them to China. However, most of the Crown Colony of Hong Kong actually consists of the New Territories. That was ...


17

Gibraltar was defensible, but Hong Kong was not. In the 1990s, the distance from the UK would have made Hong Hong impossible to defend. Also, Hong Kong is primarily occupied by Chinese, unlike Gibraltar, which is occupied by UK citizens, many of whom are soldiers. Gibraltar is a fortress, and it is relatively close to the UK and hence easily suppliable. ...


12

The British army simply didn't have enough soldiers available when the war started. Per the Wikipedia page, their total military strength was around 45,000 men, and Lord North and General Howe didn't think this was nearly enough to succeed. Toward this end, the parliament authorized the raising of 55,000 soldiers and 45,000 sailors in October of 17751. ...


11

Legalities Modern India evolved out of the transitionary Dominion of India, which was created from territories of the British Raj. It is important to note that neither Bhutan nor Nepal were princely states under British India. In Nepal's case, the Himalayan kingdom successfully negotiated a Treaty of Friendship in 1923, in which Britain recognised Nepalese ...


10

1. Newfoundland British Colonisation of Canada began with Newfoundland, claimed by England in 1583. This early English interest was in fishing: Newfoundland contained excellent fishing grounds, and fishermen of the West Country steadily became regular visitors to the region over the ensuing decades. In addition to fishing, Newfoundland was seen as "freely" ...


10

The British East India Company raised three forces between 1740-1757. These became known as the Presidency Armies, named after the three Presidencies in India under Company rule. They were the: Bengal Army Bombay Army Madras Army The size of these armies underwent tremendous growth as the Company expanded in India and acquired ever more security ...


10

Yes. In 1730 and again in 1789, Britain sent convict ships to Newfoundland. However, neither experiment was successful as they found that St. John's could not incorporate the scores of new residents. There were scattered instances of a handful of convicts being sent to Newfoundland for seven-year terms, but no other large-scale attempts to export convicts to ...


9

Ostensibly, Labour was against immigration controls. This is evident from its opposition to the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968. But your real question appears to be, how likely Labour would have passed the same law. I would argue that there's no great need for speculation. Labour was voted into power during the 1964 election. Despite its earlier ...


7

I find interesting that many answers just belong to "armchair generals" that point only to the military power, logistics, *1 but forget to mention the issues that could lead to a war in the first place. Remember, war is the continuation of politics.... First of all, I would point the main issue would be noticing how these issues affect the internal ...


7

Sikhs from the Punjab and Nepalese Gurkha's were purposely recruited into the British army because these two regions were the hardest to conquer during the British Conquest. References: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikhs_in_the_British_Indian_Army https://en.wikipedia.org/?title=Gurkha


6

According to Brian Lavery's "Nelson's Navy"[1], communication between the Admiralty and the fleets (at least during the French Revolutionary/Napoleonic Wars) was performed by the navy's own vessels. As noted in a previous answer, these were refered to as despatch vessels or despatch boats[2], and the role was usually filled by a variety of schooners and ...


6

The British Rulers of India were basically racist people. There existed hoaxes and pseudo-ethnologies. They had based the recruitments to their forces explicitly from these group of people. The Wikipedia article illustrates quite wholly the concept that existed at that time. The doctrine of 'martial races' postulated that the qualities that make a useful ...


5

The Cape Province had had a qualified franchise from the introduction of responsible government in 1853, based a fairly low property threshold for men regardless or race (similar to the UK at the time) to which a literacy test was later added. Natal had a franchise which was in theory non-discriminatory but in practice was white men only, and not all of ...


5

British Government British policy is that the relationship between the British Crown and the Indian States terminates in full, without being transferred to the newly created India or Pakistan. It is therefore up to the princely states themselves to decide which of the two dominions they would join. This is expressed in the Indian Independence Act 1947, ...


5

This poses an extraordinarily simplistic question. The histories of different 'colonies' are so utterly varied in their type and circumstances that it would be almost impossible to find useful examples for a contrasting case study. And what would be the point anyway? 'Colonies' which did particularly well, both before and after independence, are ones where ...


5

The British colonization of Canada happened almost by accident. It "started" with British settlements at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1621, and elsewhere in what later became the Thirteen Colonies. There were also British "maritime" colonies in the modern Newfoundland and Hudson Bay Valley. The trigger for the colonization of the ...


5

Because it suited British interests to do so. It seems you are wondering why the Poona Pact was reversed, but this should not be surprising. The Poona Pact was a compromise between Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi, designed to reconcile the Untouchables and the Hindus against British Imperialism. In contrast, the Government of India Act 1935 was an ...


4

The population of India during the British Raj days was first counted during the census of 1871. Prior to this a full census and data on British subjects were not available. The 1891 census also did a linguistic division, but nothing such as "British Subjects". But people who spoke English as a mother tongue returned 238,409. The total Number of people with ...


4

One other aspect to this discussion is water. Once the UK had returned the leased territories (as they would have had to do), all China needed to do was turn off the tap supplying water to the rest of HK. (Where do you think it came from?) It is unlikely that the rest of HK would have lasted more than a few days - no tanks (yes, I did see the pun) needed. ...


4

There may not have been a movement in Britain, but there were certainly individual left-wing anti-colonial intellectuals from the British colonies who wrote works in this vein. C. L. R. James from Trinidad was one, recognized even today for Black Jacobins, a history of the Haitian revolution published in 1938. This event (contemporary to the French ...


4

According to your linked Wikipedia article, that movement essentially started out as a Francophone version of the Harlem Renaissance. One important point here is that the Afro-British would not have nearly as much incentive to start their own movement, as the existing one already used their native language. In fact, a sizable amount of participants in the ...


4

Both sides did quite a lot of testing pre-war. That's why they had detailed tables that showed that X shells in Y hours would destroy anything. As it turned out, though, all this testing turned out to be irrelevant to the actual battlefield conditions of the Trenches. The problem is that in a war with your troops at risk, countries are far more willing to ...


3

Although, as you note, millions of shells were fired before the larger battles, the damage done by these shells was largely incidental and known to be so. Of much greater significance leading up to an assault was the suppression of enemy fire while friendly troops were in No-Man's Land, and a further shock-induced delay after the barrage lifted before ...


3

I conducted a small survey of the (quite extensive) literature on this topic , and found that there are many different conclusions as to both whether and why the identity of a colonial power had an impact. Quite frankly, the number of contradictory papers I found indicates that there is no scholarly consensus on this issue, and that it remains an ongoing ...


3

As you say, it sounds very unlikely. Mahmud had previously proclaimed independence in May 1919 after earlier accepting a British protectorate. He was captured by the British and exiled a month later. He was recalled in September 1922 to help stabilize unrest in the area, and proclaimed independence in November with himself as King. In December, the British ...


3

Its true that Gandhi did have a compromising attitude towards the British during WWII and even stated that We do not seek independence out of Britain's ruin. Reference: Transfer of Power in India by V.P. Menon. Though Gandhi was the most influential figure in the political scenario at the time, it's important to remember that simply because he wanted ...


3

In "The Bloodybacks - The British Serviceman in North America 1655-1783" Reginald Hargreaves states the British soldiers assualting Bunker Hill carried 125lb. "Every man was loaded down with his full kit, which, with knapsack, blanket and ammunition, totaled at least a dead weight of one hundred and twenty five pounds". Page 243


3

HMS Campbeltown was a lend-lease destroyer with a critical role in the St Nazaire Raid aka "The Greatest Raid of All". The raid was to destroy the Normandie dry dock in Western France, the only one large enough to repair German capital ships. Losing this dry dock meant the Germans could not send large capital ships out into the Atlantic as commerce raiders ...


3

Canada is the country that extends from British North America. Far in advance of settlers, many explorers gradually unveiled the vastness of Canada, such as John Cabot (1497) and Jacques Cartier (1535). By 1607, the British started settling at Virginia (the very first British colony), Plymouth, Massachusetts (in 1621) and what was to become known as the ...


3

Wiki: The 1861 Census had revealed that the English population in India was 125,945. Of these only about 41,862 were civilians as compared with about 84,083 European officers and men of the Army.[47] In 1880, the standing Indian Army consisted of 66,000 British soldiers, 130,000 Natives, and 350,000 soldiers in the princely armies. Indian economy ...



Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible