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61

Despite common misconception, both Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula were ceded to the United Kingdom in perpetuity, via the Treaty of Nanking and the Convention of Peking, respectively. London was under no legal obligation to return them to China. However, most of the Crown Colony of Hong Kong actually consists of the New Territories. That was ...


18

Financial Wikipedia answers: The guinea is a coin that was minted in the Kingdom of England and later in the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom between 1663 and 1814. It was the first English machine-struck gold coin, originally worth one pound sterling, equal to twenty shillings; but rises in the price of gold relative to silver ...


16

Gibraltar was defensible, but Hong Kong was not. In the 1990s, the distance from the UK would have made Hong Hong impossible to defend. Also, Hong Kong is primarily occupied by Chinese, unlike Gibraltar, which is occupied by UK citizens, many of whom are soldiers. Gibraltar is a fortress, and it is relatively close to the UK and hence easily suppliable. ...


13

Because it didn't have a choice: it had neither the will to defy the British Government, nor the ability to do so. Remember corporations are not people; its shareholders and directors were. In this case, most of them were British, owning properties and with aspirations in Britain. That alone made resisting a duly constituted Act of Parliament by force ...


12

They sent ships to the various headquarters with messages. Ships would return to their local headquarters to receive orders periodically. Failing that, the HQ would send another ship to the place where a particular ship was operating. I suppose the navy might have used commercial ships if convenient, but in most cases had to use their own sloops and ...


12

The British army simply didn't have enough soldiers available when the war started. Per the Wikipedia page, their total military strength was around 45,000 men, and Lord North and General Howe didn't think this was nearly enough to succeed. Toward this end, the parliament authorized the raising of 55,000 soldiers and 45,000 sailors in October of 17751. ...


11

Legalities Modern India evolved out of the transitionary Dominion of India, which was created from territories of the British Raj. It is important to note that neither Bhutan nor Nepal were princely states under British India. In Nepal's case, the Himalayan kingdom successfully negotiated a Treaty of Friendship in 1923, in which Britain recognised Nepalese ...


10

1. Newfoundland British Colonisation of Canada began with Newfoundland, claimed by England in 1583. This early English interest was in fishing: Newfoundland contained excellent fishing grounds, and fishermen of the West Country steadily became regular visitors to the region over the ensuing decades. In addition to fishing, Newfoundland was seen as "freely" ...


10

The British East India Company raised three forces between 1740-1757. These became known as the Presidency Armies, named after the three Presidencies in India under Company rule. They were the: Bengal Army Bombay Army Madras Army The size of these armies underwent tremendous growth as the Company expanded in India and acquired ever more security ...


9

Ostensibly, Labour was against immigration controls. This is evident from its opposition to the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968. But your real question appears to be, how likely Labour would have passed the same law. I would argue that there's no great need for speculation. Labour was voted into power during the 1964 election. Despite its earlier ...


8

Indian WWI-recruitment poster was very peculiar. Material benefits, instead of patriotism, were employed to encourage recruitment. Indian recruitment poster. Urdu translation reads: 'Who will take this uniform, money and rifle? The one who will join the army. Source: Imperial war museum.


8

The reason for this involves the difference between wholesale and retail trade. Wholesale trade and banking was conducted in gold (guineas), retail in silver (pounds sterling). The reason for the price difference was to provide a commission. A common practice in England was to conduct wholesale business in trade auctions. The price would be quoted in ...


6

According to Brian Lavery's "Nelson's Navy"[1], communication between the Admiralty and the fleets (at least during the French Revolutionary/Napoleonic Wars) was performed by the navy's own vessels. As noted in a previous answer, these were refered to as despatch vessels or despatch boats[2], and the role was usually filled by a variety of schooners and ...


6

Before the telegraph, communication was normally by post, which was an office or shack for handling the mail. Military communications were handled right alongside civilian messages and for this reason the post was almost always operated by the government. Each route went over land or by sea as was most convenient and sometimes both. In many cases private ...


6

I find interesting that many answers just belong to "armchair generals" that point only to the military power, logistics, *1 but forget to mention the issues that could lead to a war in the first place. Remember, war is the continuation of politics.... First of all, I would point the main issue would be noticing how these issues affect the internal ...


5

This poses an extraordinarily simplistic question. The histories of different 'colonies' are so utterly varied in their type and circumstances that it would be almost impossible to find useful examples for a contrasting case study. And what would be the point anyway? 'Colonies' which did particularly well, both before and after independence, are ones where ...


5

In 1860, during the Second Opium War with Qing China, combined British and French forces, under British direction, looted and burnt the Old Summer Palace. This was done in retaliation for the killing and torturing of envoys sent for negotiations. The Old Summer Palace (a.k.a. Yuan Ming Yuan) is a large palace complex situated 8km from the Forbidden Palace ...


5

The British colonization of Canada happened almost by accident. It "started" with British settlements at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1621, and elsewhere in what later became the Thirteen Colonies. There were also British "maritime" colonies in the modern Newfoundland and Hudson Bay Valley. The trigger for the colonization of the ...


5

The Cape Province had had a qualified franchise from the introduction of responsible government in 1853, based a fairly low property threshold for men regardless or race (similar to the UK at the time) to which a literacy test was later added. Natal had a franchise which was in theory non-discriminatory but in practice was white men only, and not all of ...


5

Because it suited British interests to do so. It seems you are wondering why the Poona Pact was reversed, but this should not be surprising. The Poona Pact was a compromise between Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi, designed to reconcile the Untouchables and the Hindus against British Imperialism. In contrast, the Government of India Act 1935 was an ...


4

Neither of them were really part of India to begin with. Sri Lanka was formerly the British Crown Colony of Ceylon, which grew out of an earlier Dutch colony. In 1795, during the Napoleonic Wars, Britain took over control of Sri Lanka's coastlines from the Dutch Republic. The British East India Company was entrusted to administer the area, but it was ...


4

According to your linked Wikipedia article, that movement essentially started out as a Francophone version of the Harlem Renaissance. One important point here is that the Afro-British would not have nearly as much incentive to start their own movement, as the existing one already used their native language. In fact, a sizable amount of participants in the ...


4

There may not have been a movement in Britain, but there were certainly individual left-wing anti-colonial intellectuals from the British colonies who wrote works in this vein. C. L. R. James from Trinidad was one, recognized even today for Black Jacobins, a history of the Haitian revolution published in 1938. This event (contemporary to the French ...


4

British Government British policy is that the relationship between the British Crown and the Indian States terminates in full, without being transferred to the newly created India or Pakistan. It is therefore up to the princely states themselves to decide which of the two dominions they would join. This is expressed in the Indian Independence Act 1947, ...


4

Both sides did quite a lot of testing pre-war. That's why they had detailed tables that showed that X shells in Y hours would destroy anything. As it turned out, though, all this testing turned out to be irrelevant to the actual battlefield conditions of the Trenches. The problem is that in a war with your troops at risk, countries are far more willing to ...


4

One other aspect to this discussion is water. Once the UK had returned the leased territories (as they would have had to do), all China needed to do was turn off the tap supplying water to the rest of HK. (Where do you think it came from?) It is unlikely that the rest of HK would have lasted more than a few days - no tanks (yes, I did see the pun) needed. ...


3

As you say, it sounds very unlikely. Mahmud had previously proclaimed independence in May 1919 after earlier accepting a British protectorate. He was captured by the British and exiled a month later. He was recalled in September 1922 to help stabilize unrest in the area, and proclaimed independence in November with himself as King. In December, the British ...


3

Its true that Gandhi did have a compromising attitude towards the British during WWII and even stated that We do not seek independence out of Britain's ruin. Reference: Transfer of Power in India by V.P. Menon. Though Gandhi was the most influential figure in the political scenario at the time, it's important to remember that simply because he wanted ...


3

Victoria and her successors were king/queen of the United Kingdom (England + Scotland + Ireland) and emperor/empress of India in personal union, in part at least so as not to be outdone by the Hohenzollern (king of Prussia and emperor of Germany) and the Habsburgs (emperor of Austria and king of Hungary). “RI” (regina-imperatrix) is the exact equivalent of ...


3

In the colonial era, sugar then was comparable to oil now - it was an extremely valuable commodity, and countries sought to produce as much of it as possible. The Guianas had a suitable climate for growing sugar and had been left unsettled by the Spanish/Portuguese, so it was not surprising that they would be eventually conquered by other European powers. ...



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