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18

Financial Wikipedia answers: The guinea is a coin that was minted in the Kingdom of England and later in the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom between 1663 and 1814. It was the first English machine-struck gold coin, originally worth one pound sterling, equal to twenty shillings; but rises in the price of gold relative to silver ...


12

American Wasteland: A Social and Cultural History of Excrement,1860-1920 By Daniel Max Gerling, B.A.; M.A. Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of The University of Texas at Austin in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy The University of Texas at Austin: Although Gayetty’s Medicated ...


10

Although this question probably can't be resolved without years of comparative study, a quick indication of the answer can be done by looking at the current GDP of the countries as a reasonable measure of "stability and success". The cases are also very different between different continents and times, as colonization changed a lot during the period. ...


10

They sent ships to the various headquarters with messages. Ships would return to their local headquarters to receive orders periodically. Failing that, the HQ would send another ship to the place where a particular ship was operating. I suppose the navy might have used commercial ships if convenient, but in most cases had to use their own sloops and ...


9

Nothing happens at all. This is essentially a question of two parts. Part one is unstated, but important, and it is the question of who is legitimate monarch. First of all, legitimacy does not, as Tony Robinson claims, rest on blood. Legitimacy rests on being accepted as legitimate. This sounds like a tautology, and on some level it is, but on another ...


9

Britain's order of succession is determined by male-preference cognatic primogeniture (in the future it will be equal primogeniture). This allows a female to ascend the throne as queen regnant (queen in her own right, as opposed to being a consort to a king). Queens Elizabeth I & II and Queen Victoria are example of such queens. In their cases, there is ...


8

The reason for this involves the difference between wholesale and retail trade. Wholesale trade and banking was conducted in gold (guineas), retail in silver (pounds sterling). The reason for the price difference was to provide a commission. A common practice in England was to conduct wholesale business in trade auctions. The price would be quoted in ...


7

The concept of "Ownership" as in the right to sell (dispose) was a concept from the west that did not exist in India before the arrival of the Europeans. Land was plentiful, so there was no need to buy land. The "tenant" or cultivator had rights, but paid taxes to the crown. The king/monarch could evict the cultivator for not paying taxes. But the land that ...


6

In the words of one Richard Feynman, from Chapter 28 of The Feynman Lectures in Physics Vol. 1: Maxwell noted that the equations for the laws that had been discovered up to this time were mutually inconsistent when he tried to put them together, and in order for the whole system to be consistent he had to add another term to the equations. With this new ...


6

I'll provide a few comparisons; this is an interesting question that deserves a book length treatment. My apologies if in my attempt to be brief I oversimplify either side. The American revolution occurred at the beginning of the British imperial age; the first Indian rebellion occurred during the height of Imperial power. The American revolution occurred ...


6

There are many examples of propaganda in the American revolution. A few that come to mind off the top of my head: Common Sense, so beloved of grade school teachers and proto-communists everywhere. Letters from a Pennslyvania Farmer Note well the list of several dozen similar propaganda vehicles cited at the bottom of that page The correspondence committees ...


6

There is an unobvious connection pointed out by Tarle: Before the Seven Years War the major threat for the colonists was the French in Canada who could conceivably mount an invasion and conquer the colonies (who hardly relished the prospect). The only sure protection against that was Britain. Once Britain had vanquished France and removed the ever-present ...


5

The North American version of the Seven Years' War was the 1[French and Indian War]. And yes, it did set the stage for the American Revolution for at least three reasons: It provided a causus belli. The French and Indian War cost a lot of money, which the British tried to recoup by taxing the "Americans" of the Thirteen Colonies. The result was a battle ...


5

Until now, British law has given priority to male over female heirs of kings. But where there were no male heirs, a girl got the nod. For instance, King Henry VIII had three (surviving, legitimate) children; Edward (the youngest), Mary, and Elizabeth. Edward, the boy, was crowned king ahead of his two older sisters. He died in adolescence (without ...


4

In a small way, yes it did. However, the deleterious effects of this incident would have been almost entirely isolated to the southern plantation colonies of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. Not only are those only four of the 13 colonies, but they happen to have been some of the rebelling colonies in which Royalists (colonists against the revolution ...


4

It is difficult to prove a negative (that Britain did not intentionally create problematic borders), but there are good reasons to believe that there was no conspiracy to create problematic borders. To support my claim, I mainly draw upon an excellent summary given by Chester, and the "Problems in the process" section of the Wikipedia article on the ...


4

From what evidence I have been able to find, the tramway opened in 1902, soon after electricity was introduced to the walled city ("old" Delhi). The Viceroy at the time was Lord Curzon. As you have discovered, many newspaper articles have been quoting a different, but very specific date: March 6, 1908. The ultimate source for all of these articles appears ...


3

The Declaration of Independence was explicitly written as propaganda, to convince the World and its leaders that the actions of the American People were reasonable. Consider these excerpts: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are ...


3

The middle of the 18th century was the height of the British nationalist movement. Examples of this movement include composition of Rule, Britiannia! and creation of the popular of cartoon character, John Bull. John Bull is a simple, jolly, content, country gentlemen who represents Britain and is often placed in opposition to France, Scotland or the popular ...


3

The wikipedia page on Havana clarifies Less than a year after Havana was seized, the Peace of Paris was signed by the three warring powers thus ending the Seven Years' War. The treaty gave Britain Florida in exchange for the city of Havana on the recommendation of the French, who advised that declining the offer could result in Spain losing Mexico and ...


3

Found information in this JSOR article*: Georges Clemenceau ceeded Mosul during a Sunday conversation at the French Embassy in London on December 1st 1918. Possibly for one or more of these three reasons: Removal of a source of friction with their British ally, as France's primary goals at the time were Eurocentric. To forestall a complete revision of the ...


3

Not all Scots ran around in kilts - that is very much a Highland tradition. The KOSB being borderers and lowlanders in general did not see the kilt as part of their own tradition, and thus Tartan Trews were worn - and looked very sharp if I may say so. The pipers of the regiment did wear the Royal Stewart in a Kilt, bit other ranks wore Leslie Tartan Trews ...


3

Many of the Early Zionist Leadership advocated Ideas like 'transfer' (removal of the ran population) and 'Jewish Labour' the idea that Jews needed to be involved in agriculture and industry and the Jewish state needed to be built by Jewish labour, a sort of denouncing of the limited roles that Jews had be forced into in Europe. These ideas also meet in the ...


3

Spivak's term "epistemic violence" means the infliction of harm against subjects though discourse. Spivak's understanding of discourse comes from Foucault. In the work of Michel Foucault, and that of the social theoreticians he inspired: discourse describes “an entity of sequences, of signs, in that they are enouncements (énoncés)” An enouncement ...


3

A traditional British regiment was divided into 3 battalions. A standard battalion had nominally 800 foot soldiers. A standard regiment, 2400 soldiers. Quoting from "A New and Enlarged Military Dictionary" by Charles James (1802): REGIMENT, (regiment, Fr.) a term applied to any body of troops, which, if cavalry, consists of one or more squadrons, ...


3

Before the telegraph, communication was normally by post, which was an office or shack for handling the mail. Military communications were handled right alongside civilian messages and for this reason the post was almost always operated by the government. Each route went over land or by sea as was most convenient and sometimes both. In many cases private ...


2

Elizabeth I also went fully armored at the battle of the English Channel when the British expected the Spanish army to debark on English soil.


2

I am going to catalog the results above because comments sometimes get deleted, and are not intended to be part of the permanent record for a question. The Online Books Page for Charles Kingston O'Mahoney, 1884- All entries for the name O'Mahoney at GravestonePhotos.com Charles Kingston O'Mahoney grave monument details (now 1884-1944) Project Gutenberg: ...


2

There is in fact a small PDF available online which attempts to answer this question through detailed study of a small area of the South Pacific. The islands of Vanuatu were administered jointly by the British and French. The author finds that "political indicators are in favor of British administration, but economic indicators are in favor of French ...


2

Why ignore Australia, New Zealand & the United States - are they are not all former colonies of Great Britain? The United States does particularly well, being the country with the highest GDP. They gained their independence in 1789, that is two centuries ago. One may suppose, that most of the former colonial nations that aren't doing so well are still ...



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