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18

Financial Wikipedia answers: The guinea is a coin that was minted in the Kingdom of England and later in the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom between 1663 and 1814. It was the first English machine-struck gold coin, originally worth one pound sterling, equal to twenty shillings; but rises in the price of gold relative to silver ...


12

American Wasteland: A Social and Cultural History of Excrement,1860-1920 By Daniel Max Gerling, B.A.; M.A. Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of The University of Texas at Austin in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy The University of Texas at Austin: Although Gayetty’s Medicated ...


12

They sent ships to the various headquarters with messages. Ships would return to their local headquarters to receive orders periodically. Failing that, the HQ would send another ship to the place where a particular ship was operating. I suppose the navy might have used commercial ships if convenient, but in most cases had to use their own sloops and ...


11

Because it didn't have a choice: it had neither the will to defy the British Government, nor the ability to do so. Remember corporations are not people; its shareholders and directors were. In this case, most of them were British, owning properties and with aspirations in Britain. That alone made resisting a duly constituted Act of Parliament by force ...


10

Britain's order of succession is determined by male-preference cognatic primogeniture (in the future it will be equal primogeniture). This allows a female to ascend the throne as queen regnant (queen in her own right, as opposed to being a consort to a king). Queens Elizabeth I & II and Queen Victoria are example of such queens. In their cases, there is ...


9

Nothing happens at all. This is essentially a question of two parts. Part one is unstated, but important, and it is the question of who is legitimate monarch. First of all, legitimacy does not, as Tony Robinson claims, rest on blood. Legitimacy rests on being accepted as legitimate. This sounds like a tautology, and on some level it is, but on another ...


8

The reason for this involves the difference between wholesale and retail trade. Wholesale trade and banking was conducted in gold (guineas), retail in silver (pounds sterling). The reason for the price difference was to provide a commission. A common practice in England was to conduct wholesale business in trade auctions. The price would be quoted in ...


8

Ostensibly, Labour was against immigration controls. This is evident from its opposition to the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968. But your real question appears to be, how likely Labour would have passed the same law. I would argue that there's no great need for speculation. Labour was voted into power during the 1964 election. Despite its earlier ...


8

1. Newfoundland British Colonisation of Canada began with Newfoundland, claimed by England in 1583. This early English interest was in fishing: Newfoundland contained excellent fishing grounds, and fishermen of the West Country steadily became regular visitors to the region over the ensuing decades. In addition to fishing, Newfoundland was seen as "freely" ...


7

The concept of "Ownership" as in the right to sell (dispose) was a concept from the west that did not exist in India before the arrival of the Europeans. Land was plentiful, so there was no need to buy land. The "tenant" or cultivator had rights, but paid taxes to the crown. The king/monarch could evict the cultivator for not paying taxes. But the land that ...


7

I'll provide a few comparisons; this is an interesting question that deserves a book length treatment. My apologies if in my attempt to be brief I oversimplify either side. The American revolution occurred at the beginning of the British imperial age; the first Indian rebellion occurred during the height of Imperial power. The American revolution occurred ...


6

In the words of one Richard Feynman, from Chapter 28 of The Feynman Lectures in Physics Vol. 1: Maxwell noted that the equations for the laws that had been discovered up to this time were mutually inconsistent when he tried to put them together, and in order for the whole system to be consistent he had to add another term to the equations. With this new ...


6

There are many examples of propaganda in the American revolution. A few that come to mind off the top of my head: Common Sense, so beloved of grade school teachers and proto-communists everywhere. Letters from a Pennslyvania Farmer Note well the list of several dozen similar propaganda vehicles cited at the bottom of that page The correspondence committees ...


6

There is an unobvious connection pointed out by Tarle: Before the Seven Years War the major threat for the colonists was the French in Canada who could conceivably mount an invasion and conquer the colonies (who hardly relished the prospect). The only sure protection against that was Britain. Once Britain had vanquished France and removed the ever-present ...


5

The North American version of the Seven Years' War was the 1[French and Indian War]. And yes, it did set the stage for the American Revolution for at least three reasons: It provided a causus belli. The French and Indian War cost a lot of money, which the British tried to recoup by taxing the "Americans" of the Thirteen Colonies. The result was a battle ...


5

Besides Britain there were other colonial powers with great empires, Spain and France. They had similar number of colonial possessions. Spain had nearly entire South and Central America, while France had most of Africa. It was much later (after WWII) when France lost most of its possessions in Africa, although in North America they lost their possessions to ...


5

Indian WWI-recruitment poster was very peculiar. Material benefits, instead of patriotism, were employed to encourage recruitment. Indian recruitment poster. Urdu translation reads: 'Who will take this uniform, money and rifle? The one who will join the army. Source: Imperial war museum.


5

Until now, British law has given priority to male over female heirs of kings. But where there were no male heirs, a girl got the nod. For instance, King Henry VIII had three (surviving, legitimate) children; Edward (the youngest), Mary, and Elizabeth. Edward, the boy, was crowned king ahead of his two older sisters. He died in adolescence (without ...


5

Before the telegraph, communication was normally by post, which was an office or shack for handling the mail. Military communications were handled right alongside civilian messages and for this reason the post was almost always operated by the government. Each route went over land or by sea as was most convenient and sometimes both. In many cases private ...


4

The wikipedia page on Havana clarifies Less than a year after Havana was seized, the Peace of Paris was signed by the three warring powers thus ending the Seven Years' War. The treaty gave Britain Florida in exchange for the city of Havana on the recommendation of the French, who advised that declining the offer could result in Spain losing Mexico and ...


4

It is difficult to prove a negative (that Britain did not intentionally create problematic borders), but there are good reasons to believe that there was no conspiracy to create problematic borders. To support my claim, I mainly draw upon an excellent summary given by Chester, and the "Problems in the process" section of the Wikipedia article on the ...


4

From what evidence I have been able to find, the tramway opened in 1902, soon after electricity was introduced to the walled city ("old" Delhi). The Viceroy at the time was Lord Curzon. As you have discovered, many newspaper articles have been quoting a different, but very specific date: March 6, 1908. The ultimate source for all of these articles appears ...


4

In a small way, yes it did. However, the deleterious effects of this incident would have been almost entirely isolated to the southern plantation colonies of Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. Not only are those only four of the 13 colonies, but they happen to have been some of the rebelling colonies in which Royalists (colonists against the revolution ...


4

Neither of them were really part of India to begin with. Sri Lanka was formerly the British Crown Colony of Ceylon, which grew out of an earlier Dutch colony. In 1795, during the Napoleonic Wars, Britain took over control of Sri Lanka's coastlines from the Dutch Republic. The British East India Company was entrusted to administer the area, but it was ...


4

In 1860, during the Second Opium War with Qing China, combined British and French forces, under British direction, looted and burnt the Old Summer Palace. This was done in retaliation for the killing and torturing of envoys sent for negotiations. The Old Summer Palace (a.k.a. Yuan Ming Yuan) is a large palace complex situated 8km from the Forbidden Palace ...


4

The British colonization of Canada happened almost by accident. It "started" with British settlements at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1621, and elsewhere in what later became the Thirteen Colonies. There were also British "maritime" colonies in the modern Newfoundland and Hudson Bay Valley. The trigger for the colonization of the ...


4

According to your linked Wikipedia article, that movement essentially started out as a Francophone version of the Harlem Renaissance. One important point here is that the Afro-British would not have nearly as much incentive to start their own movement, as the existing one already used their native language. In fact, a sizable amount of participants in the ...


4

There may not have been a movement in Britain, but there were certainly individual left-wing anti-colonial intellectuals from the British colonies who wrote works in this vein. C. L. R. James from Trinidad was one, recognized even today for Black Jacobins, a history of the Haitian revolution published in 1938. This event (contemporary to the French ...


3

The Declaration of Independence was explicitly written as propaganda, to convince the World and its leaders that the actions of the American People were reasonable. Consider these excerpts: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are ...


3

The middle of the 18th century was the height of the British nationalist movement. Examples of this movement include composition of Rule, Britiannia! and creation of the popular of cartoon character, John Bull. John Bull is a simple, jolly, content, country gentlemen who represents Britain and is often placed in opposition to France, Scotland or the popular ...



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