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9

Depending on your definition of corporation, you could claim that Venice and other merchant cities of Italy were akin to corporations. Guilds could well be said to have been pseudo corporations and the Templar orders a pseudo-bank. Corporations allow for a united front against competition, taxes, and a sharing of profits. The Merchant Adventurers of ...


8

The earliest instance of a "corporation" as we recognize them today has to be the Dutch East India Company which was established in 1602. The Dutch East India Company was the first to issue shares that were tradeable on a stock exchange in its company in part to raise capital for its operations. At the time of its founding similar trading companies focused ...


8

Harry Gordon Selfridge does appear to be the man responsible. From Wikipedia's page on Selfridges: Selfridge's innovative marketing led to his success. He tried to make shopping a fun adventure instead of a chore. He put merchandise on display so customers could examine it, put the highly profitable perfume counter front-and-centre on the ground floor, ...


7

The process of wrapping purchases in paper and twine is called packaging, and the resultant wrapped item is called a package. (You will hear purchases sometimes referred to as packages in old books, TV shows and movies.) It was replaced by self-service shops and sturdy paper bags beginning in the '30s. To begin with, paper was used as flexible packaging as ...


7

I think that your answer is Angel and Royal Hotel. From the history fact sheet: Widely regarded and fondly known as the oldest surviving English Inn, the main façade of the building that stands today was built approximately 600 years ago. The site then, however, had already been an Inn for 200 years, and was built as a hostel for the chivalrous ...


5

The word "corporation" originates from Ancient Rome. Ancient Rome had special laws concerning the creation of corporations. Under the republic the creation of corporations was free, but starting from the reign of Augustus, only the Senate could approve the creation of new corporations. A Roman corporation was unlike the modern ones. It was more like a ...


5

According to Mass Media in Ancient Rome: Painted advertisements for games have survived under the ashes that buried Pompeii in 79 GC. These advertisements promoted the games’ sponsors as well as the games themselves: Brought to you by Decimus Lucretius Satrius Valens, permanent priest of Nero Caeser, son of Augustus, twenty pairs of gladiators. ...


5

The code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours and it dates back to about 1754 BC, indicating that beer parlours and the commerce of beer were already common at that point. Taverns were also common in the Roman Empire. However with the fall of the Western Roman Empire they seem to have somewhat faded into the background. Wine was too ...


4

Chain stores became an important force in the American economy around the turn of the century. Mass production (and the accompanying potential for mass consumption) made this new business model possible. Innovators saw that they could make more money from high-volume low-margin sales than from the low-volume high-margin sales that characterized traditional ...


4

. . . the earliest surviving graffito is thought to be an ancient Greek brothel advert in Ephesus, now on Turkey’s west coast. Telegraph.co.uk The same article contains other discussions of advertising in Pompeiian graffiti


3

There is little credible information about War Relief Toy Works. The knowledge seems to be shared to whoever owns a piece. Based on some of my research I believe that "War Relief Toy Works" was a charity created to aid injured soldiers. The toys would be made by wounded soldiers in World War One and possibly World War Two but is unlikely or less ...


2

As the wikipedia article states, the quote is from Charles Mackay's "Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds". The quoted lines appear on page 57, as item 17 in a list of over 80 "bubble" companies that were made illegal and abolished by the Privy council on the 12th July 1720. No further details are included. Without the ...


2

The 1929 stock market crash (and the excesses, bordering on illegality that led to it) led to the creation of the Securities and Exchange Commission in 1934, following the onset of the Great Depression in the early 1930s. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Securities_and_Exchange_Commission There were Congressional acts, those of 1933 and 1934 that changed ...


2

The original chain stores sold low cost, mundane products that enabled merchants to save money by "buying in bulk." The first three included United Cigar (a "single" product store), F.W. Woolworth, a "dime" store that we would now call a "dollar" store, and Great Atlantic and Pacific (A&P), a grocery store. Chain stores became popular in the United ...


1

Until very recently beer was not sold in bottles or tins, but was tapped from a keg. This meant that if you wanted beer you either went to a tavern, or else you lived in a palace and had a lot of space and a lot of servants, or in a big monastery. In the middle ages beer would normally have been brewed locally, in the tavern itself, the estate or the ...


1

That's probably Banco di San Giorgio founded in 1407, and closed in 1805.


1

The Church adapted it from Roman law: "Christianity at its very beginning, found the concept of the corporation well developed under Roman law and widely and variously organized in Roman society. It was a concept that the early Christians soon adapted to their organization and, as a means of protection in the periods of persecution. Whether we attach to the ...



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