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Muscle cuirasses were rigid and rather uncomfortable; they also required custom fitting. So did lorica segmentata, but it was far more practical in battle. It's hard to say for sure whether the muscle cuirass was seriously used in battle by the Romans, but certainly it was exclusive to particular officers, such as a legate. They are very common in ...


1

Male line descent from previous emperors, or any descent from previous emperors, was not legally necessary to become emperor. There were Emperors who seized the throne, and officials who were elected emperor when there was no obvious heir to the throne. Almost every single Emperor after Alexios I Komnenos (reigned 1081-1118) was descended from him either ...


2

Byzantium and Persia were both greatly weakened by titanic wars they had fought with each other during the reign of Heraclius - at one point Byzantium was surrounded, and at another Heraclius was taking Persia's capital city. But aside from that, there was a structural weakness in the Eastern provinces near where Islam was being born - the Monophysite ...


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Long lasted wars between Sassanians and Byzantine empire had made cripple armed forces of both of them and made their borders vulnerable. Lakhmids were acting as a buffer state between nomad Arabs and Sassanians. but Khosrow II made them into neutral force practically. the practice made Iran's southern border more vulnerable even more. Kavadh II massacred ...



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