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10

The Rubicon river marked the boundary between the province of Cisalpine Gaul and Italy proper. Caesar, as a proconsul, held imperium (the right to command) within the provinces, but only a consul or praetor could hold imperium inside Italy. Generals were expected to lay down their command and re-enter Italy as private citizens; not doing so would be seen as ...


8

Although Caesar's crossing of the Rubicon, which marked the border of his province, was significant in that it marked the start of full on hostilities, it was by no means certain that he would be victorious. According to both Plutarch and Suetonius, Caesar had doubts in his mind as he reached the river, the latter claiming that these doubts were soothed only ...


8

When Caesar led his army across the Rubicon River, Pompey fled to Greece with his army and most of the Senate. In the beginning, the advantage seemed to lie with Pompey. Not only did he command a large army, but he also controlled much of the East as well as Spain. Caesar, however, handled the situation masterfully. Finally in 48 B.C., Caesar crushed ...


7

Pharsalus was the turning point. Caesar was out numbered and could easily have lost but was the better general on the day. Remember that Pompey was considered the better general between the two at the time. After that, it was a matter of time before he finished the civil war. Pompey was later assassinated in Egypt and thus never had a chance to recover ...


4

Yes. It was Decius. But I cannot say if it was because Christians were being too aggressive. It could have been an attempt to gain public acceptance. All the inhabitants of the empire were required to sacrifice before the magistrates of their community 'for the safety of the empire' by a certain day (the date would vary from place to place and the ...


3

Here is a time line of events of the civil war between Caesar and Pompey (continued by his party after his death) 50 - Caesar enters Italy proper by crossing the Rubicon with his army 49 - Pompey evacuates Italy and arrives in Greece On route to Spain, Caesar initiates a siege of Massilia, he leaves for Spain, and his subordinates successfully end the ...


2

I, like many historians, consider Caesar's histories to be accurate and objective. In fact, Caesar is, like Thucydides, considered to be an author who set a new standard for historical accuracy for writers coming after him. The reasons I consider his accounts to be accurate: There are no cases I know of where some fact in his histories has been shown to be ...



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