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22

The tablet is almost certainly a modern fake: Despite Gordon’s certainty about the genuineness of the inscription, he failed to find support from colleagues and, notably, entered into a bitter dispute with Frank Moore Cross Jr (born 1921), Hancock Professor of Hebrew and Other Oriental Languages Emeritus at Harvard. Cross pointed to problems with ...


14

Short Answer: His army was too small to either assault or securely besiege Rome Rome itself remain defended by two legions and a large, conscriptable population Marching on and laying siege to Rome was beyond his logistical capacity He cannot realistically defeat Rome while her Latin and Italian allies remained loyal The traditional analysis is that ...


9

Note item (6) - New Harbour Entrance on your map. This entrance was constructed in 147 B.C. (the third year of the siege) simultaneous with item (7) - Scipio's Mole blocking the original entrance. During the siege the Carthaginians were able to continue trading overseas, albeit with limited success because of Rome's influence. The Siege was prosecuted ...


9

The Carthaginians were in several ways distinct from their Phoenician forefathers, while at the same time remaining a recognizably Phoenician offshoot and maintaining cultural ties with Tyre throughout their history. A notable difference is that the Carthaginians were an aristocratic society, while most other Phoenician city states were hereditary royalties. ...


8

There are no conclusive archaeological evidence, and the status of child sacrifice in Carthage is a matter of debate. In general, while there used to be a strong consensus amongst historians that the Roman insistence on the Carthaginians' infanticide was more than war propaganda, in later years several historians have raised doubts about the actual status of ...


8

The first thing to note is that fashions changed rapidly in ancient times, just like they do today and one "Phoenician" might be wearing something completely different than another one. Also, a foreigner who was doing business in Rome normally would dress just like the Romans. Wearing foreign garb in Augustan Rome would not be a recipe for success. Also, ...


7

There's actually quite a bit available, even just from wikipedia: Catapults: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Carthage_%28c._149_BC%29 Trireme Rams, Corvus (naval): http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/weapons_corvus.html Sambuca, Claw of Archimedes, Heat Ray, onagers (naval): ...


6

Carthage's leadship was not fully behind Hannibal's war on Rome. They did try to take advantage of it (like the failed Sicily mission) but never put their full power behind Hannibal. By the time they realised that they should, it was too late. Reinforcements, siege weapons, and a navy would all have helped Hannibal a great deal. None of those things were ...


6

I believe we can spit this up into three parts: Roman Jewish Community: "Jews have lived in Rome for over 2,000 years [...] They may even have established a community there as early as the second pre-Christian century, for in the year 139 B.C. the pretor Hispanus issued a decree expelling all Jews who were not Italian citizens" Jewish Encyclopaedia So we ...


6

The Carthaginians were culturally Phoenician, and most evidence I've come across points to the calendar being lunisolar. There are some pretty strong indications that it would have been similar to (or evolved into) the Hebrew calendar, and there are several month names that are shared with other cultures in the region. Phoenician feasts and rituals revolve ...


6

The exact amounts of forces that took part in this battle seem to be unknown or at least controversial. My opinion bases on the lecture of 10 pages of discussion at the main Polish historical board. In overall, it's safe to say that the the answer is yes, most of the Roman soldiers "Roman" and most of Hannibal's soldiers were mercenaries. Even if it would ...


5

The Romans used mercenary Numidian cavalry at Zama, and they were more effective than the "Native Sons" in the Roman cavalry, so the assertion is false. Scipio was a better general, statesman and politician than Hannibal. That's pretty much the beginning and end of it.


5

First of all, the Carthaginian Empire's army was mainly mercenary. They fielded Iberian Infantry, African Infantry, Numidian Cavalry, and the now extinct North African War Elephant. Iberian infantry were light troops, with sword and shield. Because there were so many mercenaries, there was not a specific Carthaginian insignia. Hannibal Barca has tons of ...


5

According to this source, Carthage remained a minor Phoenician outpost until after the fall of Tyre to Alexander the Great in 332 BC. At that time many of the wealthy citizens of Tyre, having ransomed themselves from Alexander, moved to Carthage and began the constructions that led to it rapidly becoming the wealthiest city of the Western Mediterranean. If ...


5

Some Late Punic texts (ca. 200-400 CE) were written in Latin letters, and so fully vocalized. The best treatment of these is R. M. Kerr, Latino-Punic Epigraphy. FAT ser. 2: 42. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2010. Punic certainly had vowels; the writing system didn't fully represent them (because the syllable structure of all Semitic languages makes it easy to know ...


4

Ba'al is a Northwest Semitic title applied to many gods of the region. The one I believe you are referring to is Moloch. Here is a exaggerated description of him by Gustave Flaubert, written in 1862. Although it is is not first-hand, he did visit Carthage to research and gather material for it. Then further back, higher than the candelabrum, and much ...


2

The reason we can't speak Phoenician today as we can with Latin is that Phoenician has no vowels, so we know many of the words but have no idea how the Carthaginians would have pronounced them. Also the reason why little of the Carthaginian writing is left today is because it wasn't rewritten. Most of the Latin writings we have stem from manuscripts that ...


1

Hannibal's troops were not numerous enough (about 40,000 after the battle) to have a hope of taking Rome, which had a very large population (somewherere around 200,000) and was well fortified (the Servian Wall).



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