Cartography is the making and studying of maps. Maps are generally a way to visualise spatial information, but can also include other types of information, such as time, flora, fauna, objects and events.
The view and method of cartography has changed much over time, but foremost, its aim is to represent a stylised projection of spatial information.
The first maps often contained an array of visual representations of humans, animals and events; often placed in localised timelines. This aided the development of visual language and semiotics: the use of legends and symbols as representative for real-life spaces, objects and events.
Modern GIS technology (Geographic information science) makes it possible to create extremely detailed maps for highly specialised needs. Modern mapmaking are highly versatile and can be a great aid to a number of disciplines.