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17

It would be very interesting to see a chart of rate of innovation over time in western civilization. Of course, this begs the question of what is "innovation". Do you count number of inventions? Do you give more weight to inventions that would have long lasting significance through history? Or ones that may have been less influential but providing a huge ...


13

Quite the contrary as Rodney Stark pointed out in The Victory of Reason - the Catholic church itself promoted most of the societal conditions that allowed the Middle Class to take hold, and in so doing also promote the nurture of science and industry. Chief among these were personal property rights (stemming from the idea that we were God's stewards) and ...


12

I think you can't really separate the two sets of motivations for the crusades (religious fervor/ political or power-grabbing issues) from one another. In a time where politics and religion were habitually and naturally intermixed it's hard to expect something else. A look at the list of leaders of the First Crusade to examine their personalities can be ...


11

At the moment of his election (1641), it seems that Mazarin was in minor orders - so called "lay cardinal". After that, there seems to be little consensus and pretty much no primary sources, but if anything, he was a cardinal-priest. By the process of elimination, he was a cardinal-priest: He was definitely not a cardinal-deacon. From "The Cardinals of ...


10

With the invention of the printing press came not only books, but artwork intended for mass production. The first major artist to use printmaking as his medium was the otherwise anonymous Master of the Playing Cards, who, true to his name, made his living creating beautifully elaborate engravings for playing cards. Playing cards of the time featured ...


10

The three ecclesiastic electorates; Trier, Cologne, and Mainz have well documented lists of the Archbishop-Electors who served and at what times. The majority of them in the latter period of the Holy Roman Empire are indeed of noble descent. However, John I of Trier is presumably to have been of commoner descent, as stated in this 1881 publication by ...


9

Hormisdas is of Persian origin, and he possibly took the name to honor a Persian noble named Hormizd. In the tenth century we had a Pope Landus, or Lando, and various sources say that this name is of Anglo-Saxon origin. Lando was also his given name, however, and I find it unlikely than an Italian from Sabina would have been given an Anglo-Saxon name. What ...


8

I've finally found the exact sentences, so I'm putting here a new answer instead of the yesterday's one. As it's written in official materials of Copernikus' Museum in Frombork, Poland, such corrections were done simply by striking out some parts of the text and it happened only with something like 8% books that survived until recent times. It was their ...


8

No. Many volumes have been written about Galileo and the Church, and so an answer on this site cannot do the topic justice. But despite the gleeful reporting by critics of the Catholic Church, the 1992 report was not about astronomy. It was an admission that Galileo had been mistreated and wrongfully convicted. Soon after his election in 1979, Pope John ...


8

According to Cardinal Richelieu's Wikipedia page he was a cardinal priest until December 4, 1642, the day of his death. Mazarin is difficult to find specific information on. According to his Wikipedia page, Jules Mazarin succeeded Richelieu. Since I cannot find any information on which kind of cardinal Mazarin was, I can only assume that he was a cardinal ...


8

It is unclear from your question what do you mean by "separated from the state". In fact European history knows only one theocratic state - the area under direct papal control centered in Rome, known at different periods as Papal states or Vatican. The rulers of all other European states were secular persons. Still the laws of many European states ...


8

Latin was indeed the lingua franca of the period, and very, very few people could read or write. There just wasn't a lot of reason to be able to do so; paper was not introduced to Europe until the 1200s, so before then if you wanted to write anything down you had to go through the painstaking process of creating a piece of vellum or parchment for what it was ...


7

The róisín dubh, “little dark rose” or “little black rose,” is a symbol of Ireland, and has been used as a term of endearment for Ireland by Yeats and other poets. The 15th-century folk song “Róisín Dubh” is a love song in which Ireland is personified as a woman nicknamed Róisín Dubh, not unlike the way France is “Marianne” or the United States is ...


7

Wikipedia has a complete list of Papal names. Counting this week's Francis, 81 different names have been used. There are some names that arguably may be Italian rather than Latin (eg:Lando), but none with undisputed roots outside of those three languages. Note that etymology Online actually lists Francis as French in origin, which would make it of Romantic ...


7

Even as someone with an Anglo-Saxon background, I find it informative to look upon the Crusades in the way the residents of the area must have viewed them — a series of barbarian invasions from the north-west. Yeah, the Crusaders had their reasons. In their own minds they were completely justified. But the same could be said for the Huns and the ...


7

Most was circulated back into the community through Church charities and hospitals (scroll down to 'History of charity in the Church'). Some was taken by the state and thus became eventually owned by people (see Dissolution of the Monasteries: Continental Precedents for example). Some was converted into buildings, icons, frescos, statues and other forms of ...


7

France was in 1792 attacked by a coalition of states, that included several Italian states. Although the Papal States and Republic of Venice was not amongst them, Naples and Sicily was. This put the Papal States as well as Venice in the middle of the war between Austria and France, since Venice was located between France and Austria and the Papal States ...


5

The motivation for the various crusades differed. The first crusade was to a large extent a response to the increasing power of the Muslim empire. This seemed to have worried Christian powers for some time, and when the Byzantine Emperor asked for military help from the Pope to fight off Turkic Muslims the Pope responded with a speech at the Council of ...


5

The Middle Ages reduced innovation in the Middle Ages. If anything, the Church was the only thing keeping Western Europe literate during that time (and even then, just barely). The fact that any books from earlier times survived at all we have Church scribes to thank for. Knowledge and the dissemination of knowledge is the lifeblood of what you would call ...


5

The French imprisoned both Pius VI and Pius VII. You should be able to find plenty of hits during the "pornocracy" between 867–1049 CE. Leo V was imprisoned by an antipope. John X was imprisoned at the height of the pornocracy as was poor Benedict VI. John IV was another unfortunate who was imprisoned by an antipope. Then there's infamous Formosus who, ...


5

It is a long and complicated story, but a very brief outline is the following. Copernicus book was published in 1543. For about 70 years after that the Church did not express any "official opinion" on it. The book was discussed by several writers, some supported and others criticized the theory, as it usually happens with scientific theories. The church did ...


4

Actually I've just found out about such situation. In 1303, Philip IV of France, who was in a long conflict with Pope Boniface VIII, decided to judge the pope for his blasphemies (as a politic consequence of the papal bull Unam Sanctam). He sent Guillaume de Nogaret with 1600 soldiers to Rome. Boniface VIII tried to escape, but was found in family residence ...


4

Pope Liberius was exiled to Thrace for a while in the mid 4th century. During the early middle ages it was not unheard of for the Byzantine emperor to send people to arrest (or murder) the Pope in Rome when he started acting too independently for the emperor's taste. A prime example is Pope Martin I, who was arrested on the orders of Emperor Constans II and ...


4

The basic problem with this question is that the Papacy really didn't start producing a large number of encyclicals until Leo XII in the middle of the 19th century. Prior to that, the Papal Bull would be used, as would apostolic letters, but Leo XIII really revolutionized the practice. I highly recommend Papalencyclicals.net for more sources. Another ...


4

The greatest destruction of knowledge caused by Christianity occurred much earlier at the start of the dark ages. The burning of the library at Alexandria and the murder of Hypatia (she was skinned alive with oyster shells) is but one famous example of the damage wrought at that time by christian mobs. These were made up of people who expected the world to ...


4

I can but skim the surface of the question but let's have a go at it. The Popes were at first the Bishops of Rome and as such did not wield any political power, even after the Roman Empire became Christian. Moreover, the Roman see was not even considered the highest-ranking one within the Church. However, with the fall of the Western Roman Empire a ...


4

Most probably just a myth. See here for a detailed analysis of Aristotle's actual writings on the the issue, and the ensuing debunking of the myth.


4

Such a marriage would be Inter-denominational. The Catholic Church has long viewed marriage with people it calls heretics as illicit without a Bishop's dispensation, as promulgated by the Pio-Benedictine Code of 1917. Prior to this date there was some regional variation and in interpretation and practice, which the Pio-Benedictine Code harmonized. So my ...


3

After the break between the Catholics and the Protestant reformers, moderate Catholic rulers such as the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V tried to reconcile the two sides. At his instigation, Protestant theologians developed a statement of principles called the Confession of Augsburg that was acceptable to some Catholics. Even Charles V conceded in 1530 (and ...


3

To add to choster's excellent answer, don't forget that Vatican was an intensely political place (then, just as ever). It didn't help Galileo's case that he took the Pope who previously personally supported him: In the early days of his reign, Galileo had reason to believe Maffeo Barberini's elevation to Pope might lead to a loosening of the Church's ...



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