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15

We have essentially three references on this topic. Of these, only Caesar's could have had political motivations, as he was engaged in a campaign against the Britons. His account, however, is only marginal compared to the others, in that he does not clearly state that the Celts went to battle naked. On the other hand, both Polybius and Diodourus Siculus look ...


10

I would suggest reading Book 1 of The Gallic Wars (link has both English and Latin if you want to see the untranslated text), which is as much a political history of the conquest of Gaul as it is a military history. Julius Caesar starts the book with a description of the political landscape at the time: All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which ...


10

Performing first a search for all occurrences of "German" and then of "civiliz" in The Gallic Wars suggests that the most relevant passage is from Chapter 24 from Book 6 (my emphasis): Chapter 24 And there was formerly a time when the Gauls excelled the Germans in prowess, and waged war on them offensively, and, on account of the great number of ...


6

This is kind of a wide-ranging question. I'll do my best with it. The Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages consists of Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic, and Manx. It appears to have differentiated in Ireland, the other branches existing due to conquest/immigration. In particular, Scottish Gaelic pretty much completely replaced the Pictish element in ...


4

If the historian Tacitus simply provides too much of a Roman perspective and/or is too late in history (1st century AD), then archaeological evidence is likely the best source (as DVK previously commented). The people of Iron Age Britain Demography The Roman historian described the Britons as being descended from people who had arrived from the ...


2

I doubt a whole army would have gone into battle en masse naked, but there is enough hearsay to assume that there were some naked warriors. I think it almost impossible to prove or disprove this, but I believe it likely that there were celtic warriors who fought naked. Where they Viking style beserkers who had too many hallucinogens, or where they slaves ...


1

The modern conception of kingdoms is viewed as synonymous with the nation/state - i.e. Great Britain or Spain or Sweden. A kingdom could be viewed as a unit of sovereign law - thus if I run things on some island and the island is not otherwise 'possessed' by another country then I am 'king'. Migratory tribes tend to have leaders responsible for making ...


1

The use of the word 'Celts', or the non Roman spelling, 'Kelts' (Romans had no K in their alphabet and so used C) is very confusing. The Britons were not Kelts, the Romans record that the Britons or Pretani called themselves the Britanni in the south and Brittoni in the north. On Pliny's map Britain is named, and much of Europe including Gaul, is named ...



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